AMIC's Media Guru

Ask the Media Guru

*Note that this is a moderated question and answer forum.

The Guru answers questions about media planning, media buying, media research and media management. Answers usually appear on the Guru answer page within one or two days.

To obtain the Guru's best answers to your queries:

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You may search the "Guru Archives." to see if the Guru has recently answered a question similar to your own.

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Monday, December 29, 1997 #1482
Where can I find the address and phone nuber of CVS's ad agency, Ingalls, Quinn and Johnson? Also the agencies for Blockbuster Video and Eckerds Drugs? Thanx and a tip of the hat Philip Jay LeNoble, Ph.D. philipjay@aol.com

 

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, December 29, 1997 ):
Find contact information for agencies in The Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies

Find the advertiser's agencies in the The Standard Directory of Advertisers . Or ask the advertising department of media you observe them using.

Some sites offfer address and phone info for known companies. Try Switchboard or Four11

 


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Monday, December 22, 1997 #1481
I would like to have the E-Mial address of Radio Recall Reserarch Inc., Holmdel, New Jersey My E-Mail Address is rahul_thpas@hotmail.com thanks.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, December 23, 1997 ):
Switchboard and Four11 are two sites which offer email address search.

 


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Tuesday, December 16, 1997 #1478
I am adressing the respectable guru with a question regarding servicing two or more mutualy competitive clients (within the same industry). I come from media specialists company in a small market (Slovenia - not Slovakia - with 2 mio. inh.) and we are facing with this problem as companies are adressing us, but we are already working for their competitor. Some clients have no problem with such a situation as it can be efficient (joining the budgets for research for example) for both. The problem we have is what to do while planning. Let's presume we have two clients from washing powder industry and we are making a plan for both - it is like ly that the same breaks would appear in final selection and the problem may arise if we need the last ad in break: which one should get the better placement? Should we put them into the same break in the first place? Any thoughts on this matter would be very appriciated. Is serviscing two companies within same industry exceptable at all? Thank you in advance for your answer. Andraz Zorko, SLOVENIA (not Slovakia)

 

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, December 16, 1997 ):
The Guru's thoughts on this matter are based on U.S. experience. The Guru's international experience tells him principally that issue like the on you raise are treated differently in various countries. For example, in the UK, once a position has been sold to one advertiser, it is still possible for another to buy the position out from under the first advertiser at the last minute, by offering a higher price.

In the U.S., in certain industries, such as toys or fashion, it is not considered ethically questionable for one agency to have several "competing" clients.

From a marketing perspective, the Guru would think the two competing washing powder brands would be better served by not being in the same break. A careful analysis of all the marketing issues and communications goals ought to allow you to decide that the break is more appropriate to one advertiser than the other.

Keep in mind as well, that a plan is more than just one break. (except in the case of some US plans based solely on the Superbowl). Any one break might not be crucial to any one plan.

 


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Monday, December 15, 1997 #1477
Dear Media Guru: Thank you for your prompt and informative answer to my questions regarding advertising agency organization. However, the information you provided begs a follow up question: in order to do my homework and put together a proposal that properly targets the clients that would be best served by the advertising opportunities we have available, how do I obtain a list of an advertsing agency's clients? Thanks again for your help.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, December 15, 1997 ):

 


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Monday, December 15, 1997 #1476
DOES 'IMAGERY TRANSFER' ONLY APPLY TO A CAMPAIGN WHERE THE INSERTION OF TELEVISION IS FOLLOWED BY RADIO. OR CAN THERE ALSO BE IMAGERY TRANSFER WHEN BOTH MEDIA ARE INSERTED AT THE SAME TIME ?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, December 15, 1997 ):
Obviously the transfer can't affect radio until the TV message has acheived some penetration. As the campaign continues, the simultaneous start becomes irrelevant.

 


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Friday, December 12, 1997 #1475
Dear Media Guru: This query addresses: How are advertising agencies generally organized? and How do I determine the proper person to present a proposal for a media buy? I work for a five-year-old minor league baseball team that has, until now, concentrated its efforts in selling advertising upon local businesses. However, we are the top entertainment attraction in our region, and we feel our market size combined with our reach and influence in the market should warrant our attracting some business from regional and national advertisers. Our availabilities include print, radio, billboard, and promotions. What would you suggest is the best strategy for approaching regional/national advertising agencies regarding the opportunities we have available? Should we work to contact the people in each agency who are responsible for making buying decisions for each individual client? Or would establishing a relationship with those individuals who are familiar with buying our market on behalf of many different clients be more productive in the long run? Thank you in advance for your assistance.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, December 12, 1997 ):
Agencies generally have a media department or at least a Media Director / Media Buyer who is responsible for evaluating a media proposal. If an agency is so small it doesn't have any media titles, the acount executive for a given advertiser would be the appropriate person.

Be sure to do your homework and be ready to talk about which clients at the agency wold benefit from your proposal and why. It is generally annoying to agency people to have a media seller show up with a non-specific proposal and ask "which of your clients would want this?"

 


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Tuesday, December 09, 1997 #1474
How do I put a dollar value on pr media placements? For example, how is a 6 column inch pr mention in the NY Times or a 30 -second mention on a radio station measured in terms of dollars? Is there a formula to use for PR, or do I use the straight advertising rate?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, December 09, 1997 ):
The Guru believes equal space in PR coverage is worth more than an ad, but it's a judgement call how much more.

 


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Tuesday, December 09, 1997 #1473
I'm preparing to develop a pricing strategy for a non-profit web site. We are looking to obtain both advertising and "development sponsorships" for the web site. Do you know of what other non-profits charge to advertise on their sites, and what other non-profits typically charge for sponsorships? Any advice would be greatly appreciated? Thank you

 

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, December 09, 1997 ):
In the Guru's experience, most non-profits don't carry advertising. But surely some do. You'll need to cruise the "org" sites and see who's got advertising and ask about pricing. The key determinants of ad pricing are usually traffic and selectivity of targeting.

 


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Tuesday, December 09, 1997 #1472
Do you know who puts out the "SQUAD" report? Also, where can I find out more information on where and how the results of this report are collected. This is a report on Broadcast CPP analysis by daypart/market.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, December 09, 1997 ):
SQAD (no "u") is published by Spot Quotations and Data Service of Tarrytown, NY. They are happy to provide methodological information. See selected SQAD data in AMIC's "Rates, Dates and Data area.

 


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Thursday, December 04, 1997 #1471
Could you provide me with the E-Mail address of McDonald Research, Mr. Colin Mcdonald's Organisation or an alternate way of contacting Mr. Colin McDonald. Rahul Thappa rahul_thaps@hotmail.com

 

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, December 09, 1997 ):
The Guru uses e-mail address look-up sites such as Switchboard or Four11

 


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Tuesday, December 02, 1997 #1469
I am conducting a study on factors influencind effectiveness of ads on FM Radio. I will be measuring ad-recall, w.r.t factors like ad-length, ad-position, ad block length, likeability. I am scouting for secondary info, but i do not seem to find any. I would like a copy of Mr. Colin McDonald's study on factors affecting ad-recall. Could you tell me as to where i could find the study and other relevant info. thanks. rahul_thaps@hotmail.com

 

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, December 03, 1997 ):
The best source is likely to be the Advertising Research Foundation library.

 


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Tuesday, December 02, 1997 #1468
Hi there, I was given the a very ambitious goal - to promote a publishing company as well as its products with the less cost the better. The publications are financed by advertising sales. The distribution is world-wide. Apart from a website and some mailshots which are normally aimed at advertising sales thers has not been done a lot to actually promote the company or its products. Do you have any suggestions how to increase the market awarness with a small budget? How could I actually attract journalist by our publications to write about them? Thanks for your help Zino

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 04, 1997 ):
This is not really a media question. You seem to be ruling out advertising as an answer and to be asking how to achieve free public relations coverage.

The simple answer to that is to identify journalists who write about publications or about the topics your publications cover. Find out what interests these journalists and send them press releases that will interest them.

You may find Internet Newsbureau or PR Newswire to be useful resources.

 


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Monday, December 01, 1997 #1467
where could i find the rates of television spot rates and magazine ad

 

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, December 01, 1997 ):
You'll find some of this at AMIC in the Rates, Dates and Data area.

More extensive information is available from Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS)

 


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Sunday, November 30, 1997 #1466
Hi Guru: I am a marketing student and now doing a promotional campaign. My team needs to develop a media flowchart with reach, frequancy, GRPs, and yearly schedule by by month. I know there are softwares that does that, but we are only students and have no money to buy professional softwares like that. I would like to know if there is freeware that we could use to develop this chart or if there is anything we could refer to. Thanks a million. Please let me know ASAP cos this is due pretty soon. Sarah

 

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, December 01, 1997 ):
As with most specialized software that makes a job easier and a result prettier, there's also a tedious, less attractive choice.

Telmar's ADplus / Flowmaster is one of the best programs for media flowcharting. However, with no budget, you can probably do an adequate job for your school project with whatever spreadsheet program your computer has installed: Lotus 1-2-3, MS Excel, or MS Works, etc.

Just set your columns to 2 characters wide (enough for dates) for each week and you can create a flow chart. Activity bars can be filled in with special characters or shading.

Any text can be accommodated and total can be calculated; heavier lines dividing months and quarters are also easily done.

 


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Saturday, November 29, 1997 #1465
hi there, I will be starting media planning studies in a few weeks, and wondered if you could help me find some free literature (on the web) , that explain the basic methods , and terms of the proffesion . thank you for your help. eran , Israel.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, November 29, 1997 ):
There is plenty of material, right here on the AMIC site, especially in the Media Guru area. Explore the "Parts of a Media Plan" and "Encyclopedia of Media Terms"

 


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Thursday, November 27, 1997 #1464
How can I advertise my products in Spanish to South America via internet?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, November 28, 1997 ):
First, of course, you would need a Spanish language web site. (We rule out email or newsgroup spamming).

By the nature of the internet, it is not directed to any country or contintent; sites are equally accessible to all. So your task is to make people in South America aware of your site. One way is to use traditional media to promote your site, but you don't seem to want to do that.

Another is to link with or advertise with sites known to appeal to South Americans. These may include the South American based airlines or other South American focused countries.

Another is the regionally specific portions of search engines like Yahoo.

You could also track down the multinational ad agencies' sites for their South American offices, and follow links to their clients. For example: Young and Rubicam of Argentina .

 


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Thursday, November 27, 1997 #1463
What about wear on and wear out

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 27, 1997 ):
"What about" is a question that invites too broad a response. The Guru has discussed wear out frequently: see Oct 27, below, and the Guru Archives under Media Planning, Media Effectiveness, Media Math and Media Research.

"Wear on" is not a familiar term to the Guru, perhaps it is peculiar to Italy, from where this query comes.

 


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Tuesday, November 25, 1997 #1462
hi media guru, I am doing research for a client (a medical school) for recruitment advertising. With that, I am trying to locate newspapers and magazines that have special educational supplements,sections, banners, etc that would be appropriate for the client, (not necessarily medical publications) For example: NY Times Education Life section, we we currently are running,and some others, but need a source to breakout the pubs, so I don't have to call across the country. Are there such services and /or books of this nature. Can you help? Please?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, November 25, 1997 ):
One such book is Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS)Newspaper Advertising Source

 


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Friday, November 21, 1997 #1461
Two different agencies have recommended a number of "points" for our television campaign. Assuming they are both recommending the same tv station, how do I distinguish which is the better recommendation for "points"?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, November 22, 1997 ):
Assuming one recommends a different number of points and that's the only difference -- not daypart mix or commercial length mix, you need to know the "ideal" number of points.

Do you have a budget which tells you what you can afford?

Do you have past experience which says how many points will work? The simplest and smartest thing is to challenge the two competitors to give a complete rationale for their recommendation. They both should have done that in the first place, without being asked.

Evaluate the rationales in light of your marketing needs. Again, both competitors should have found out about that before making a recommedation.

 


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Wednesday, November 19, 1997 #1460
I am trying to calculate the value of various components of a partnership (co-op) program. I am particularly interested in knowing how to go about calculating the value of in-store POP/signage. Could you please help me. Thanks.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, November 22, 1997 ):
There are two key issues:

How many exposures you get, and

The value of those exposures

It should be simple enought to determine how many people will see your POP; the vendor should have store traffic data.

The value is judgmental. Using as a base something standard like a TV :30 is a starting point.

For how many seconds will a POP sign engage the viewer?

5?

10?

That numbers of seconds' ratio to the :30 is a first step in calculating relative value.

Then, what is the selling power of a sign versus a full sound/motion TV commercial?

50%?

60?

30?

All these factors should tell you thata single POP exposure is worth "X"% of a TV :30 exposure. Combined with the exposure count, you have your valuation.

 


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Wednesday, November 19, 1997 #1459
Does it make any sense to calculate GRPs not having reach and frequency stated? My campaign brings me 530 GRps - whatdoes it mean for me? Could I calculate OTS if I have only GRPs? Thank you

 

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, November 22, 1997 ):
GRPs are simply a summation of all the audiences of all the ads in a plan. They give you the "boxcar" size of a plan without any detail. This can be used to compare to other campaigns or other times, in crude terms.

If by OTS, you mean "Opportunities to See," which is equivalent to Impressions, then the calculation is simple. GRPs are a percentage of the population. Whatever your GRP's target group, you need to know the total "universe" of that population for which the GRPs are stated. Then, if you have 500 GRPs, you have impressions equal to the population, times 5.

 


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Friday, November 14, 1997 #1456
Hello GUru Is there any stated limitation of advertising airtime on international news networks like CNN WhatI want to know is how much ad could be aired in 1 hour (sorry not sure if I put it correct in English) thank you

 

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, November 14, 1997 ):
Standards change and may vary by time of day. Since you know the question and the source for the answer, it's as easy to ask CNN as the Guru.

 


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Thursday, November 13, 1997 #1455
Are there any sites on the Net that provide information on advertising agencies? i.e. Name, Location annual income? I'm trying to do some qualifying and this information would be of help. Thank You,

 

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, November 14, 1997 ):
The Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies is the standard source of such data. It is expensive and would not likely be found on the web for free. There are compilations of links to agency sites, such as the one in AMIC's Web Sites area.

 


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Tuesday, November 11, 1997 #1454
Dear Master Media Guru: As a graduate student in Media Communication, I like to know how I will go about getting informations and resources to do my thesis paper. I plan to compare between traditional advertising and the new media (ex. internet advertising).

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 13, 1997 ):
You would need to be much more specific for the Guru to help you. To answer so broad a question, the Guru could only recommend contacting some New Media for their recommendations.

 


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Thursday, November 06, 1997 #1452
Dear Media Guru! I would like to know US per capita advertising in 1970 and 1995 or 1996. If it's possible, I also would like to know total US advertising expenses in 1970 and 1995 or 1996. Thank you very much.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, November 06, 1997 ):
Ad Age publishes these statistics annually.

 


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Thursday, November 06, 1997 #1451
I am involved in an ad agency that is now ready to hire a media director/planner. One of he things we hear quite often in a market as small as ours is that many clients want to know what they get for giving up commissions they would not normally by dealing with media direct. Does the Guru have a list of keys benefits that can help clients see the value of moving from managing their media to using media professionals? This info will also help us select a suitable candidate for the position.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, November 22, 1997 ):
The media professional is a person who focuses on the right media for the right price.

On any given day, anyone might get a better price than anyone else for a specific media purchase, but not just anyone will select the best media to support creative, reach the right consumer or make the biggest impact.

Negotiating skills are a product of experience and focus, but they can be developed in fields other than media.

Media planning and management skills are about learning what tools exist and how to use them:

  • Audience research
  • product usage and other consumer segmentation research
  • media analysis tools
  • media predictive tools
  • and more that are not likely to be available or understood by other than an experienced media professional.

 


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Tuesday, November 04, 1997 #1449
I'm looking for research on TV spot schedules vs. placing the monies on an infomercial instead. What are the advantages or disadvantages?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, November 05, 1997 ):
The Guru's answer is based on the assumption that your "spot schedule" would also be direct response effort.

Research would take back seat to actual tracking of results and no one knows everyone's results.

The key theoretical difference would be much greater schedule dispersion for the spots, hence greater reach.

There would also be greater frequency for the spot schedule.

On the other hand, infomercials tend to run in fairly standard time blocks, e.g. weekend morning, overnight, etc. Therefore there is a certain segment who intentionally "shops" the infomercials.

The Direct Marketing Association (DMA) may have some tracking data regarding specific cases.

 


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Tuesday, October 28, 1997 #1447
WHAT ARE A FEW WEB SITES THAT TARGET TEENS (AGES 12-17)?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 29, 1997 ):
Searching on the word "teens" at Yahoo will produce an enormous list of teen oriented sites. Here are some of the first few:
  • 360° Magazine - national magazine about young people, their lives, and the challenges they face. The writing, artwork and and photography in 360° are submitted by teenagers from around the country.
  • AdoMonde francophone - interactif, dynamique et francophone écrit par les adolescents. Apprentissage éducation français jeunes école jeu sport loisir enseignement francophonie amitié
  • Angst - a diary of teenage noise.
  • Blast! Magazine - interactive site for people under 21.
  • Buf-Puf - teen webzine for health and beauty, featuring tips on skin care, girls and guys who use 3M Buf-Puf Sponges, plus cool interactive quizzes and surveys.
  • Camelhair Magazine - a magazine made by and for teens, if you are into writing or have something you want to publish here we will look at it.
  • Circle J - Christian teen ezine offering poetry, articles and teen devotions.
  • Common Nonsense - Zine for teens (14-25) about alternative topics and other interesting stuff!.
  • Cyber Teen - weekly news e-zine for teens.
  • Cyberteens - place for teen creativity from photo essays to posts of the week, haiku to music reviews, sonnets to suicide columns.
  • daisyface, the zine. - webzine for teens where you can submit pretty much anything to be published in it: poetry, fiction, interviews, music, lotsa fun schtuff.
  • Deo's Paradise - teen magazine with entertainment and music reviews, computer wizadry, and more.
  • DEOs ZASSHI - teen manufactured and oriented e-zine featuring music and entertainment reviews and more.
  • Drive-Thru - This is a new and rising on-line magazine created by a teenager because he got bored. music, pop culture and other hard hitting topics.
  • Ernst - weekly youth-Magazine with interesting articles about music, society, sports and leisure.
  • Flamed: For the NeXt Generation - monthly webzine for parents and kids that will be opinionated, diss out attitude, and address how technology is accelerating the generation of new leaders: NeXters.

 


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Monday, October 27, 1997 #1446
I am trying to come up with a good media mix for an anti-theft shopping cart device that is going to be introduced to Bay Area grocers.However, I couldn't find the right trade media that can do the job. So, could you give me lists of advertising media that I can contact for further info. Thank you very much.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, October 28, 1997 ):
Consult Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) Business Publication Advertising Source to find media for grocers. The Guru doubts that there are many media for Bay Area grocers but there may be general business media for the Area or for California, or local retailers' trade association newsletters you could find by talking to a store manager or two.

 


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Monday, October 27, 1997 #1445
Dear Guru, We have been talking (within the Agency) about a new concept which is median frequency ( not average!): The goal of this mesurement tool is to determinate the wear-out level of commercials. Have you ever been across with this subject? Thanks!

 

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 27, 1997 ):
First, let's define "Median Frequency"

You seem to mean one would array all those exposed to the commerical in order of their frequency of exposure.

Then find the person at the exact middle of the line; one half of those exposed have less frequency and one half of those exposed have more.

It would actually be "less than or equal to" and "more than or equal to," since we are now dealing with discreet individuals, who therefore have a whole number (an integer) of exposures. In the thousands of people exposed, many will be at the median level of exposure

The Guru has not seen this metric used for wear out analysis before, but it seems neither better nor worse than the more common use of quintiles, i.e. looking at the top 2 quintiles, or most heavily exposed 40% of audience.

 


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Friday, October 24, 1997 #1444
My target market is : Business people and holiday makers ( frequent flyers ) in the following regions/cities. Could Media Guru supply me with a candidate list of the BEST ( highest reach ) media as well as contact details : The cities are : New York, Miami, London,Perth , Sydney, Hong Kong, Bankok, Osaka, Sao Paolo, Rio, Toronto, Frankfurt, Zurich, Copenhagen, Dubai, Bombay, Paris, Tel Aviv. Secondly , I would be most grateful id you could also supply me with a list of primary Travel/ Trade Journals which cover the same cities. Many thanks in anticipation.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 27, 1997 ):
You need to consult media guides such as Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) for the U.S. and International Media Guide for the rest of the world. Various audience and circulation measures, appropriate to the locality would be called for, but the circulation provided by these guides is a good start.

 


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Friday, October 24, 1997 #1443
I work for an ad agency that does patient recruitment advertising for clinical trials. We have experienced great difficulty in recruiting older patients (such as 65+) in alot of our major markets, such Philadelphia, Phoenix, Miami,Charlotte. We have tried newspaper advertising, radio advertising and television. But our response rate is still very low. Is there something I'm forgetting, do you have any tips on targeting and recruiting individuals over 65. Help!!!

 

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, October 24, 1997 ):
Persons 65+ have media preferences that differ from younger consumers. Presumably, you have used Nielsen TV, Arbitron Radio and Scarborough or other newspaper research to determine the best media placement, quantitatively.

Newspapers may also offer research on preferred sections for this demographic.

When you have determined that your message is reaching enough of the targeted persons, and yo're certain that you're using programs that enhance credibility (such as TV/Radio news and personality radio, then you need to look to the creative to determine if there is adequate credibility and persuasion.

The mature market has been shown to respond differently to ads, to seek more detail, and want to trust an advertiser.

Major metropolitan markets may raise more trust oriented issues.

 


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Friday, October 24, 1997 #1442
The South African Advertising Research Foundation is planning to include "quality of media contact" in our next All Media & Products Survey. Are there any studies/methodologies available so we don't have to re-invent the wheel? Many thanks. Ron Silke

 

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, October 24, 1997 ):
The best research resource for this kind of literature would be the library of the U.S. Advertising Research Foundation

 


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Thursday, October 23, 1997 #1440
Hi Guru- 1) Briefly, what does CPP stand for? 2) Have you seen any good sources that compare the costs (CPM) of various media (billboard, banners, radio, newspaper etc)?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 23, 1997 ):
CPP is Cost Per Point. "Point" refers to Rating Points, the sum of the ratings of the ads in a schedule. So cost per point is schedule cost divided by number of rating points.

CPP is also used in describing the average cost of media or programs.

MediaWeek publishes a handy guide to media costs. SQAD publishes guides to various broadcast media.

 


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Tuesday, October 21, 1997 #1439
Dear Guru: Do you know of any facts or statistics that explain how ad clutter (especially in local television news) affects the retention and overall effectiveness of the spot? I'm particularly interseted in the automobile category (local dealers, dealer groups, and manufacturers), since there is an overwhelming amount of it in our local tv news programming.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, October 21, 1997 ):
From time to time, TV "attentiveness" figures have been produced by S immons and MRI. among others.

Generally, the figures seem to correlate inversely with commercial load, and to some extent, directly, with rating size.

The Advertising Research Foundation or Newsweek Media Research Index may have some of the published reports.

 


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Saturday, October 18, 1997 #1438
Dear Guru Could you please give me your views/suggestions on the following: 1. How can you set media objectives for a banking client in a market with only two major competitors; both of whom do not have a clear-cut advertising campaign? Would a % above last years GRP levels be appropriate; in proportion to the market share desired? What other parameters should I consider? 2. Qualitatively or quantitatively, how can front page solus positions in newspapers be compared with inside pages and ear panels? 3. And lastly, how do you add TV and press GRPs; for a specific audience? Sorry about the long query. Thanks in advance

 

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, October 18, 1997 ):
As a rule, the Guru sets media objectives based on marketing goals, not competitors' activity. Some marketing goals do indeed lead one to comparsions with competition, and awareness of competitors' plans is always a consideration.

If the key marketing goal is share growth, then a proportional increase in weight is one approach. But consider that share, like reach, exhibits an asymptotic curve. In other words, it can't pass 100%, so the higher it goes, the more effort is required to "move the needle."

Consider: You first assume that "X" amount of GRP's are required just to maintain share, on the assumption that competitive activity doesn't vary (and that advertising is the only variable influencing share).

Have you considered whether current share is proportional to share of GRP weight among competitiors?

Would 50% more GRPs grow share by 50%? No, if only because it increases the size of the total advertising arena. Your 50% increase in GRP does not increase your share of GRP by 50%, so calculate the right number to increase share of GRP, if you follow that philosophy.

But since there are competitors, perhaps it takes 50% more weight to gain 25% more share?

Newspaper positions can be compared on a basis of noting, reading, recall, etc. In each country or culture (you are writing from India), the relative power of media and the way consumers relate to them are different.

In the U.S., for example, a front page ad in a newspaper would be quite unusual if not unheard of.

Contacting the U.S. Advertising Research Foundation or ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Marketing Research organization, or your own country's newspaper advertising association may turn useful up research on positioning.

The Guru treats GRPs of different media as simply additive. When there are established effectiveness factors, as some advertisers have developed, GRPs may be accordingly adjusted before adding, in comparing plans.

 


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Thursday, October 16, 1997 #1437
Where might I be able to find a source on European Cable providers?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 16, 1997 ):
ESOMAR, the European Society for Opinion and Marketing Research, may be able to help you.

 


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Thursday, October 16, 1997 #1436
Could you recommend any PR/ Directmarketing books with a focus on publishing companies as well as for ad-sales companies thank you zino

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 16, 1997 ):
Even though this is not a media question, the Guru notes having found numerous good advertising and marketing titles available through Amazon.com books

 


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Wednesday, October 15, 1997 #1435
Do have a list available detailing the agengies and buying services that specialize in Internet banner placement? Thanks Rick Pack

 

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 15, 1997 ):
In this field, there is virtually one new firm per day. Check our AMIC's Web Sites area

 


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Tuesday, October 14, 1997 #1434
Dear GURU, I'm a student who study media planning. I've to develop media plan for the new perfume. The target is female, 18-34 year old, upper income. Where could I find the consumer behavior,buying pattern and life style for this group? Thank you. Penny.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 15, 1997 ):
For U.S. data, try S immons and MRI

 


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Tuesday, October 14, 1997 #1433
How can be explained difference between peoplemeter and dairy data?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, October 15, 1997 ):
Probably the biggest factor is the people meter's elimination of reliance on memory. Viewing not recorded during viewing can't be input later.

Some of the data other collection differences are:

Diary keepers are a new sample every report, while the meter sample is the same people for years at a time.

The meter relies on individuals to push their own buttons to record viewing. Diary keeping often becomes the burden of a single family member.

Discussion of differences could go on extensively, but try Nielsen

 


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Tuesday, October 14, 1997 #1432
I want to advertise on various web sites. How do I find out who to contact to negotiate a deal for a particular site?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, October 14, 1997 ):
Virtually all sites which carry advertising will have a link on the site -- usually on the top page -- to "advertising," "info," "sales," "contact," or at least "webmaster." One of these will be a page or e-mail link with the information you need. Many of the bigger sites are repped by sales organizations .A few of the companies which act as adsales representatives for websites are:

WWWebrep

Softbank and

Doubleclick

 


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Tuesday, October 14, 1997 #1431
I want to place some standard banner advertising. What is the best pricing model to use for banner placements on search engines and other sites? I've been getting CPM prices from the search engines, but I've been told to negotiate page views or visits.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, October 14, 1997 ):
There are three basic pricing models in play at present, cpm, click-thru, and transaction based.

In click-thru, you pay for each time someone clicks on your banner to be taken to your site or full ad.

In transaction-based, if your site actually sells something, like books or cd's you pay a share of sales to the site which "referred" the customer.

"CPM" typically means you pay a given "cost-per-thousand" exposures of your banner. This is not different than page views or visits. The thousands of exposures in the calculation are page views which include your banner, not thousands of impressions of the site.

If you think a site intends to charge by their site exposures instead of your ad exposures, you should get written clarification, and then do insist on paying according to your banner exposures.

 


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Monday, October 13, 1997 #1429
Dear Guru, I need your input for a white paper I am helping develop for a client. The topic is what are some of the advantages of upfront/year long planning versus developing several mini-plans throughout the year. I guess I always took planning for granted until this particular client changed ownership and campaigns began to develop on a case by case basis. Trouble is, not much changed from year to year so it would be fairly easy to forecast the client's objectives into an upcoming year. I already came up with: time savings by planning once a year and then there is only a slight bit of execution/maintenance to worry about, the chance to lock down positioning for print, and more leverage in negotiating broadcast. Any other top line suggestions would be appreciated. Thanks in advance.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, October 13, 1997 ):
If you are on a commission basis, savings based on amount of work would be yours more than the client's.

The Guru believes that most benefits of long term planning are the ones you already have, leverage and opportunity (positioning).

But, if you separate long term planning from buying campaign by campaign, there are opportunities in short term buying, as well. If you always have uncommitted money to spend, you will always be able to take advantage of last minute opportunities, TV specials, special events, "fire sales" on unsold inventory or cancelled space, etc. The media sellers, knowing there is money waiting for opportunities, will seek you out when they occur.

From your experience with this client, you should be able to identify the particular media and vehicles that offer best opportunities in long term commitments versus those where short term buys give the greatest advantage.

 


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Thursday, October 09, 1997 #1427
Does the length of the commercial determine the amount of grps reached? If I schedule a 30ss and achieve X amount of grps, and schedule a 15ss the same amount of times I achieve the same amount of grp's as with the 30ss?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, October 10, 1997 ):
Very simply, yes. Whether they are watching for 15 or 30 seconds, the audience of the commercial is the same, so the GRPs are the same(never mind theories of channel switching, or we'd be adjusting commercial audiences based on partial viewing).

What can be confusing is that TV buyers often use formulas requiring :15's to be treated as if they had half the rating of a :30 in the same time slot, so that they can most readily calculate a ":30 equivalent" c.p.m. or Cost Per Point.

 


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Thursday, October 02, 1997 #1421
I know there is a company that specializes in placing advertising in college newspapers but can't remember the name. Can you help?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 02, 1997 ):
You are probably thinking of CASS Communications

 


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Thursday, October 02, 1997 #1420
Hi, I am a marketing student. During our course of media planning, we came up with the following question: Do advertising agencies contact publishers themselves or are they contacted by publishers. If they are contacted by publishers, with what information does the publisher provide the agency (brochures/ clients/ etc.). What would the publisher need to present that the agency will recommend it to their own clients?? Who would be the person within the agency that the publisher would speak to?? Thank you for your help Jan, Germany

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, October 02, 1997 ):
The Guru's response may not apply equally in all countries, however:

Agencies contact publishers, usually while actively working on a plan for a specific client for a specific promotion or period of time. The media planner or buyer is usually the first line of contact for a publisher

Publishers contact agencies, usually continuously, when they learn of a new account at the agency, or new staff involved in the media decisions, or when they have something new to tell the old staff or old accounts about the publication.

Publishers typically have brochures (in the US, called "media kits"). These usually describe the editorial content and mission of the publication, describe the target audience, list the advertising rates and circulation details, provide audience research when available -- either from syndicated or proprietary sources -- and may compare the publication to its competitors. Production requirements are also offered: sizes, materials, closing dates for ordes and materials, editorial and publication calendar.

Different advertisers and different media planners may be looking for different aspects of the publications at different times.

One day, audience size or composition may be the most important, another day cost or cost/audience ratio.

Sometimes, editorial environment or authoritativeness of the publication are most important, etc.

The kit is an introduction and reference tool. The publisher needs to:

  1. Focus on agency accounts that make sense for the publication
  2. stay in touch with the agency to know when decisions will be made and what extra information is helpful
  3. keep information up to date
Watch for a forthcoming media kits feature, here on AMIC

 


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Wednesday, September 24, 1997 #1418
How can I find out information regarding Q Scores?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, September 25, 1997 ):
"Q Scores" (TVQ, Performer Q, etc) are a service of Marketing Evaluations/TVQ, Inc. (516)-944-8833 or by e-mail: Qscores@soho.ios.com

 


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Monday, September 22, 1997 #1417
I'd like to ask about how to make a successfull site, or some address where can I find some information, tips to make my commmercial site better. I hope You can give me Reports, or BluePrints, or something like these.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 22, 1997 ):
There are some interesting data linked from CommercePark

CASIE, the Coalition on Advertiser Supported Interactive Entertainment, compiles available research on web audience accumulation and ad effectiveness.

 


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Friday, September 19, 1997 #1416
My company has a server that hosts two international newspapers. We would like to get some large companies to advertise on these newspaper's web sites, but have no idea how to go about getting in touch with the right people, or for that matter, who the correct people to contact are.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, September 19, 1997 ):
A few of the companies which act as adsales representatives for websites are:

WWWebrep

Softbank and

Doubleclick

These all, especially the latter two, represent higher traffic sites, i.e. 1 million+ impressions per month. There are numerous other reps, which might be found through search engines like Yahoo

 


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Tuesday, September 16, 1997 #1415
Can you direct me to a source for psychographic information on pet owners and how it drives their pet product purchase decisions?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, September 17, 1997 ):
The standard resources for such data are MRI, S immons and The Mendelsohn Media Research Affluent Study

 


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Tuesday, September 16, 1997 #1414
We are in need of international media planning sources. We need planning data for the U.K. and the Caribbean. We are interested in sources that will identify available local market advertising media to begin our media selection process. We also need audience delivery research sources. The media classes that we are considering are: television (local broadcast and cable), local market radio, newspaper, magazines, outdoor and transit. If anyone could help, we would appreciate it. Thanks!

 

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 16, 1997 ):
There are media services which offer international support. The Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies (The Redbook) would list these. Another option is to form an affiliation with small local agencies in each country.

"The Caribbean" covers a multitude of countries and you will find agencies mostly divided along language lines, i.e. Spanish speaking vs English speaking vs French speaking islands, such as Puerto Rico vs Jamaica vs Martinique, as well as by national affiliation, i.e. different agencies for Puerto Rico vs The Domincan Republic.

One organization, Publicitas offers print representation around the world and may be helpful with other media.

 


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Tuesday, September 16, 1997 #1413
dear guru congratulation for your job! could you suggest me any link or site about "cash for viewing advertisment" like cybergold, freeride ecc.. and do you know other examples of them maybe in europe? thanks lucaz!

 

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 16, 1997 ):
Another one is The Vault

 


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Tuesday, September 16, 1997 #1412
Dear GURU, Please inform us how can we reach the organisation who sends free magazines and catalogues on the subject of the media and advertising research. Thank you, Nana Morbedadze

 

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, September 16, 1997 ):
The Guru is not familiar with any such organization.

Inside Media was a free, controlled circulation magazine with the subject matter you want, but it's been out of business for some time. AdWeek and MediaWeek cover these topics, but are not officially "free."

Direct Mail catalogs of such information may come from many organizations, such as American Demographics.

There may yet be, somewhere in the world, an organization distributing free advertising and media trade magazines, but the Guru is not on their lists. Or doesn't speak their language.

 


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Wednesday, September 10, 1997 #1411
Dear Guru, I am a Software developer in Brazil and I would like to develop new Reach & Frequency Software with optimisation. Must I use Simplex method? Is there any other more efficient method? Alexandre Crivelaro, criva@gsoft.com.br.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, September 10, 1997 ):
Most optimization sytems work by adding the "next most efficient quantum of reach." This may be more efficient from a programming perspective, but a system which builds a new plan at each increment of spending can take advantage of the best overall interaction of the media. This will produce more reach-efficient plans.

AMIC's sister company Telmar uses this second type of optimization.

 


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Wednesday, September 10, 1997 #1410
Dear Guru, we are utilizing newspaper to reach the leisure travel market(weekend travelers)for hotel properties. Can't find any research on how well the "weekend guide" versus the Sunday "travel guide" sections perform in regard to : How well do each of the sections reach the local market and/or feeder markets? Are readers looking at Sunday "travel" for outbound opportunities only? Any answers on the use of each section would be appreciated. I know it looks like a no-brainer, but we need some info. to back- up our recommendation. Thanks tons, janet_sullivan@richards.com

 

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, September 10, 1997 ):
The The Newspaper Advertising Association is a good source for this type of information.

Another is the e-mail discussion list they operate, where such questions might be answered from the differing perspectives of the many newspapers which participate in the discussion

To join this discussion send e-mail to Majordomo@infi.net . The message should have no subject and a body saying only

"SUBSCRIBE NEWSPAPER-RESEARCH your-full-name"

don't type the quotes, and be sure to insert your name, not your e-mail address, where indicated.

Another resource where your media professional peers can share information, is AMIC's own Media Planning discussion, whose archives are in Ad Talk.

To join this discussion send e-mail to listserv@amic.com . The message should have no subject and a body saying only

"SUBSCRIBE Mediaplanning"

again, don't type the quotes.

 


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Thursday, September 04, 1997 #1409
Dear Media Guru, I would be grateful for any tips or direction you could provide in researching the trends of movement from large agency media buying to more specialized independent media consulting and how it impacts clients?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 06, 1997 ):
This "trend" dates back to 1969 or earlier and has been covered extensively in the media trades, many now defunct, like MediaScope, TV/Radio Age, and Inside Media Others, still in business, like Ad Age have also covered the topic extensively. Good libraries will have back issues and a searchable index.

 


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Thursday, September 04, 1997 #1407
Dear Guru, How do I subscribe to the publication Admap?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, September 06, 1997 ):
AdMap is a British trade publication. The Guru suggests you call the telephone information operator in London, England.

 


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Monday, September 01, 1997 #1404
hi i read in the advertising age about research that says "viewers who are loyal to a particular series are more likely to buy a product advertised on that show" i wonder if there is more information about this idie and where can i get it. i know that "optimum media"(ddb nidham) mada that research i neen it for a presentation, it might help me very much than you merav

 

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 01, 1997 ):
The story you found in Ad Age was probably taken from a longer release by DDB/Needham. Request the full text from their P.R. department.

 


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Wednesday, August 27, 1997 #1402
Dear Guru, I am a student for my MBA entrusted with Setting Up Media Independents in South-East Asia" I am specifically refering to Philippines, Indonesia, Taiwan & Malasiya. Despite the fact that these Media independenst have set up shop in Hong Kong & Singapore , they have not been able to get the success they claim to have achieved in US & Europe. * What are the trends in the US & Europe in terms of business moving from full service agencies to media independents * What do clients look for in a Media independent * What kinds of service do these firms provide * What are their Salary & incentive structures * How are they configured(i.e. organization structure) * How do they charge- Fee or commision or both * what are the financial dynamics * what kind of staffing is required * what degree of independence do they enjoy * the level of tranparency do they have with the client * what software do they use & how useful is that * what should be ther marketing pitch for ther own services in S-E Asia These are a few questions I have been trying to gain insight into. I have already made some inroads in gathering some information & data but it is not conclusive. This kind of research has not been conducted ever in the school and it is my desire to make a good dissertation. I want to leave the school a good document so that others wanting to move into the advertising and media industry. I am sure you can help me given your extensive network. Please let me know of any other people that you think can help me get more info as well as opinion. Guru, I understand that I am asking for too much & I am getting too demanding, but I have no other place to look for data articles and the experience that you have in the industry. Thanking you, with warm regards, Vivek Mehta e-mail: vivs@aim.edu.ph Tel: 00-63-2-8181629 (home- after 10:00 Manila time) 00-63-2-8924011 to 25 (school)

 

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, September 01, 1997 ):
You need to do a literature review of Ad Age and comparable Eurpoean publications, such as Campaign

 


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Saturday, August 23, 1997 #1401
I would like to get a copy of the research that was done recently on the impact of PSA's. Thanks.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, August 23, 1997 ):
You are probably thinking of the Advertising Research Foundation / Ad Council Colon Cancer campaign study of 1989-1990.

It and some others are briefly summarized on the Ad Council site and would be available in more detail in the published proceedings of the Advertising Research Foundation conference at which it was presented.

 


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Friday, August 22, 1997 #1400
Where could I find information regarding how automotive companies (i.e. Toyota, Oldsmobile, & Cadillac), handle their media planning and buying on a local/regional level?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 22, 1997 ):
Contacting the radio and TV stations or reps in the regions in which you are interested should tell you who is buying for each auto company in a given area. Only two or three calls to the major reps, should produce all the information.

The planning techniques may well be closely-guarded proprietary information.

Whether A/S style budgeting, investment spending, share gap, etc., etc. is used. Whether computer models and optimizations are used or not. Whether regions have freedom or just participate in nationally-based plans.

Whether agency leads in media selection or the advertiser.

Whether media types are purely based on creative considerations or media effectiveness and targeting ability.

 


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Thursday, August 21, 1997 #1399
Question: What can you tell me about the mathematical modeling system used in "advanced analytics?"

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, August 21, 1997 ):
Advanced analytics is a general description of new techniques of modelling, the key to which is use of real data. Not just sales, as a dependent variable, but real quantification of all the elements of marketing mix: media weight, budgeted coupon redemption, price promotion, etc., as independent variables.

Each practitioner will have proprietary formulas to determine what spending on what elements produces desired sales results. The simple explanation is assembling all the facts pertaining to a situation and letting the "answer" emerge of its own accord, rather than hypothesizing an answer and looking around for supporting facts.

The let the answer emerge from the facts approach is quite old, what is new is the computer-supported capability to maniipulate more data in more ways, and have real results against which to judge outcomes.

 


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Thursday, August 21, 1997 #1398
Is there a place on your site or any other site where there is a listing of media (specifically radio and tv and newspaper) terminology? Also is there a site that gives some info. of the basic techniques of buying radio, tv and newspaper?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, August 21, 1997 ):
For terminology, see the Guru's Encyclopedia of Media Terms The Guru is not aware of any sites that "teach" buying techniques. One interesting resource is the U Texas Austin TECAS Media Planner site.

 


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Thursday, August 21, 1997 #1397
Where could I find information regarding how automotive companies (i.e. Toyota, Oldsmobile, & Cadillac), handle their media planning and buying on a local/regional level?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 22, 1997 ):
Contacting the radio and TV stations or reps in the regions in which you are interested should tell you who is buying for each auto comapny in a given are. Only two or three calls to the major reps, should produce all the information.

The planning techniques may well be closely guarded proprietary information, whether A/S style budgeting, investment spending, share gap, etc., etc. is used. Whether computer models and optimizations are used or not. Whether regions have freedom or just participate in nationally-based plans. Whether agency leads in media selection or the advertiser. Whether media types are pruley based on creative considerations or media effectiveness and targeting ability.

 


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Wednesday, August 20, 1997 #1396
Who puts out a good radio and tv buying training book? How do I go about getting a hold of this information?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, August 21, 1997 ):
At Amazon Books, the Guru found Ntc Business Books' Introduction to Advertising Media : Research, Planning, and Buying by Jim Surmanek, who also has one of the standard media planning texts.

The same publisher also offers The Media Handbook / A Complete Guide to Advertising, Media Selection, Planning, Research & Budgeting by Helen E. Katz

The old standard media text Advertising Media Planning by Jack Z. Sissors, Lincoln Bumba probably gives less attention to buying.

There are many more books about planning than buying. Probably because (the Guru believes) broadcast buying can't be learned from a book. After the basic facts are digested: understanding ratings, cpm, programming and forecasting, it's people skills and technique that matter.

 


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Tuesday, August 19, 1997 #1394
Are there many spot Tv buyers negotiating pod positioning? If so what sort of premium would one have to pay to assure 1st pod position?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, August 19, 1997 ):
One can ask the major reps how many buyers are negotiating pod postioning and hope for an accurate answer.

As far as price goes, "negotiating " is the operative word. It's negotiable, depending on the size of the buy, how good your rates were to start with, tightness of the specific market, etc, etc.

 


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Monday, August 18, 1997 #1393
If I took 75.0 grps from Prime Spot TV, and moved it into Spot cable, would the reach be equal?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 18, 1997 ):
Generally speaking, cable does not cume as high as prime spot(ratings size is the simplest guide to relative reach potential, in general). Strip programming cumes less than higher dispersion schedules.

In any given market/universe situation, if a cable buy is made such that its ratings and dispersion equals that of the prime spot schedule, reach may be equal as well, but such a situation is not very likely.

If there is a large schedule of other dayparts or media, to which you are considering adding either Prime spot or cable, the difference in impact of 75 GRP of one versus the other may be quite minimal

 


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Monday, August 18, 1997 #1392
Is there a company, or a source, which is capable of measuring Reach/Frequency of any/all media combined?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 18, 1997 ):
The ADPlus system, from our sister company Telmar, can combine reach and frequency from all media. Some media must first be calculated by other systems and then be brought into ADplus for combining

 


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Wednesday, August 13, 1997 #1390
What are the differences in demographics/psychographics of viewers of morning news, noon news, early news, and late news?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, August 14, 1997 ):
For the demographics, you need Nielsen . Psychographics would come from Simmons or MRI

 


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Wednesday, August 13, 1997 #1389
Kindly give detailed examples of successful companion advertising campaigns that have used plastic cards (e.g. smart cards, credit cards, pre-paid telephone cards) as a medium for advertising placement. How can a telephone corporation sell advertising space on the back of its prepaid phone cards?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, August 13, 1997 ):
This is not actually a media question. Phone cards and affinity cards are business / promotional deals rather than media deals, in the Guru's experience. That is, marketer "X" has one million phone cards printed to order by telephone company "A." If they are $5 phone cards, marketer "A" may pay $2.50 apiece, and use them as premiums or whatever. It's more like buying calendars with your logo than placing advertising. The marketer distributes the cards, not the phone company.

Other affinity cards, like a Baseball Team's Visa Card, generate a fee to the team or league from the bank which actually supports the card. This too, is not an advertising placement.

There may be studies of marketing use of phone or credit cards in the library of the Advertising Research Foundation

 


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Monday, August 11, 1997 #1388
Before we start media plan, we wanna know which factors could help us to define a media strategy to present. Please consider that we are talking with a marketing manager. present our strategy with s.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 11, 1997 ):
Please look at The Guru's "Parts of a Media Plan". The flow of information from "Marketing Situation" through "Objectives" and on to "Media Strategy" will answer your question.

 


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Sunday, August 10, 1997 #1387
Hello, I am looking for research on relative campaign build (and speed of build) for cinema and tv. Is there any readily available research you can direct me to. Thanks Lisa Campton, Media Strategist, Saatchi & Saatchi Sydney

 

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, August 11, 1997 ):
Speed of campaign build, whether you mean reach, awareness or other factors, varies from one media environment to the next. Factors include the number of media, overall cume potential and media consumption habits peculiar to the specific culture. For example, cinema advertising, a major force in many countries is relatively insignificant in the U.S.

The cume of cable TV advertising in a country with 5 or 10 cable networks and 40% penetration will be vastly different than a country with 70% penetration and 50 channels available to the average subscriber.

In the U.S. the Advertising Research Foundation maintains archives of published research on such topics, much of it from other countries, and can often direct researchers to other, appropriate resources. You might also try

The Market Research Society of Australia Ltd P.O. Box 697
North Sydney, NSW 2059
Ph.612-9955-4830
Fx. 612-9955-5746
email sydney@onaustralia.com.au

OR

The Marketing Association of Australia and New Zealand
3 Melton Ave.
Carnegie, Victoria 3163
Ph. 613-9578-8610
Fx. 613-9578-7365

 


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Friday, August 08, 1997 #1386
I wanna know if exists any similar combination for media as exists with marketing-mix with the 4 P's (product, placement, price and promotion).

 

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 08, 1997 ):
Though not as alliterative, the comparable media factors might be:

  • Ad unit
    (length/size/coloration)
  • Frequency
  • Target
  • Geography
  • Media Mix

All this is, of course, a sub-set of marketing's "Promotion" element.

Other factors in media, which you would be used to encountering in plans' Objectives and Strategies sections, come before or after these decision points. For instance, Budget, which controls the degree of freedom possible in selecting options for the list and Reach / Effective Reach which is essentially a result of the decisions made about the listed factors.

 


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Tuesday, August 05, 1997 #1384
Are there any benchmarks for radio advertising as far as how many marketsto be in, how many $ to spend, etc. Especially for retail stores.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, August 06, 1997 ):
No, these facts change with the marketing situation. It should be obvious in a retail case that market selection depends on store locations.

Budget depends on availability of funds and the specific marketing task, like awareness or image building which may depend on continuity and long term presence, versus driving trafic to a specific, one-shotmsale or promotion.

The question suggests a student project withn an inadequate marketing brief.

 


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Sunday, August 03, 1997 #1382
I’m looking for any information on how to calculate ratings for future periods under condition of an unstable schedule. Thank you.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, August 03, 1997 ):
The potential implication of "unstable schedule" is unclear. Beginning from the simplest application of total usage, seasonality trend and most recent share, up to refinements in trending vpvh or programming and counter-programming changes, all depends on being able to predict the future. "Unstable"" implies that no trends or reliable information are available.

The Guru would be forced to use available data and hope for the best.

 


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Friday, August 01, 1997 #1381
I would like to have an explanation concerning the variables a,b,c,d used in S. Balasubramanian's model of 1990 to calculate the A&P/S ratio.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, August 01, 1997 ):
If the report you are apparently reading does not sufficiently explain the variables, you can contact Dr Balasubramanian directly. One of his studies is reported here on AMIC within Abbott Wool's Market Segment Resource Locator among the research samples. It's "ETHNICITY AND SHOPPING BEHAVIOR" Ethnic CHoice Orientation (ECHO)" , complete with a Mailto: link to the professor.

 


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Wednesday, July 30, 1997 #1379
Hi. I am trying to find out what methodologies have been used to measure "readership" of circulars and brochures that come thru the letterbox. Is there a "currency" measurement that exists for this medium ?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 30, 1997 ):
The Guru has only seen circulation audits for these "media"

No doubt some distributors, somewhere, have commissioned readership research.

The best place to look, if you don't know any such distributors, is the Advertising Research Foundation library or the Newsweek Media Research Index

 


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Wednesday, July 23, 1997 #1377
Enjoyed learning from your answers. I have following questions. 1. Is there a rule of thumb for decising how much to spend on advertising vs. public relations? 2. What is the role of ad agency in determining advertising budget? Or is it determined primarily by the client? 3. How common a practice is it to perform a computerized analysis of media plan to determine the final impact in terms of reach, frequency, etc. 4. Is there a magic number in terms of GRP's, or other ratings needed to convert a prospect to a buyer? If not how does one establish the optimum budget? Thanks so much. Raj

 

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, July 26, 1997 ):
1) Advertising vs Public Relations decisions are based on a complex mix of marketing issues. One advertiser, mostly concerned with establishing an image or with community relations may spend the majority of funds on PR and the next, seeing a simple need to move units of a basic impulse purchase low-competition, product, may do no PR at all.

2) Some clients merely tell the agency how much there is to spend. Others will go through a process of determining marketing goals with the agency and consider the agency's recommendation on the cost of accomplishing those goals. More often the budget will come from the client, based on issues other than marketing goals, and then be allocated in accord with achieving the goals within the budget.

3) Computerized media delivery analysis is common. Some small retail advertisers may just hipshoot media decisions, often because the geography is small enough to track directly.

4) No, there is no magic number of GRPs to convert prospects to buyers. The marketing issues in each case vary. It should be obvious that persuading you to order a 7-Up versus a Coke next time you go out to lunch, given your background knowledge of the products and benefits, and the consequences of the wrong choice, is quite a different proposition than persuading you to buy a Mercedes Benz, select a vacation destination, or in which hospital to have surgery.

 


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Monday, July 21, 1997 #1376
GURU: I've been out of school, working for a large agency for about a year. I would like for you to help me with just one question: What is the difference between a GRP and a TRP? I don't think there is a difference, but co-workers use TRP and I've learned it as a GRP (Gross Rating Point). Please help with any word origin or history you may have. Thanks for your help,

 

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, July 21, 1997 ):
Until the late 70's, most TV advertising, especially for major package goods brands, was bought on a Household GRP basis. As demographic targeting became more common, "Target Rating Points" (TRP) became a term distinguished from Household Gross Rating Points, which was especially useful when a plan discussed both. Some people still use phrases like Women 18-49 GRP when others would say TRP. Except that HH points are never TRP, there is really no difference.

What is important is consistency within any document and advertiser.

 


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Thursday, July 17, 1997 #1375
When do people decide to watch a certain show or special program on TV? ie a week ahead, a day ahead, an hour?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, July 17, 1997 ):
The Guru has not encountered research on this particular question. If any has been published, it is most likely available through the Advertising Research Foundation or the Newsweek Media Research Index

 


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Wednesday, July 16, 1997 #1374
In regards to web/online advertising there is a new term I am unfamiliar with. This term is "Interstitial" ad space different from that of an ad banner, button or portal. Can you provide a definition for this term?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, July 16, 1997 ):
"Interstitial" space is a full screen ad that is reached by clicking on a banner before the viewer arrives at the advertiser's actual site, or because there is no actual site for that advertiser. It may be an actual, traditional ad with a link onward to the advertiser's site or no further link at all, though the connotation of the word "interstitial" is something between other things. One example is the Buena Vista page where AMIC vistors are taken if they click the Buena Vista banner.

A portal, on the other hand is a major ad bearing "entry point" to the web thorough which masses of users enter the web An example is Netscape's home page, which is the default home page loaded by the Netscape browser, until changed by the user. And many never think about changing it. Major search engines may also be used as portals.

A button is merely a smaller sized banner, generally 125 pixels wide or less.

 


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Tuesday, July 15, 1997 #1373
Media Guru, I would like to know your opinion or if there are any generally accepted principles regarding advertising in print with multiple ads for the same brand within one issue. Thank you for your response.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, July 15, 1997 ):
Generally accepted rules? The Guru thinks not. From a media perspective it has been demonstrated, for example, that two, consecutive, one-third page ads on the outside column or right hand pages will do far better in awareness, recall, etc than one full page ad,

Despite this, it is difficult to convince advertisers to use multiple, small space ads. Unfortunately, from the media planners perspective, advertisers are more likely to judge an ad's impact by the single ad alone rather than what can be achieved in a schedule.

 


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Sunday, July 06, 1997 #1371
I am interested in learning about media placement on the internet. Where do you start? If you can reference any good reading materials. Help! I need a quick learning fix? Thanks.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, July 06, 1997 ):
The Guru has discussed this topic many times. You can use your browser's "Find" button to search this page for references to the topic or look in the Guru Archive

There are web rep firms, like Webrep and "consolidators" like Softbank which are resource that can provide general information. As the web grows and new advertising models gain popularity, the best planning ideas change and recycle, such as banners for awareness --> banners for click-through --> banners for clicks for revenue generation --> banners for awareness.

Staying current generally means, at a minimum, reading the ad trade's coverage of web trends. There are some interesting essays on web advertising which appear among AMIC's weekly Think Piecesin the "This Week" section and in the Think Piece Archive

Ad Age has some articles and The New York Times On-line has several articles by Jamie Murphy, one of our "Think Piece" authors.

 


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Wednesday, June 25, 1997 #1370
Dear Guru, I have a fundamental question for you. As media planners we recognise the need to look beyond numbers. How do you factor in the context in which the media is consumed,i.e. the frame of mind or mindset in which a program is viewed or a magazine read and the content of the medium, i.e. the edit environment, or the surrounding advertising. Is there any international learning on this subject? I am looking for research in this area, and examples of application of the same. Are there any brands you are aware of, that have consciously used such a philosophy in guiding their media plans? Thanks

 

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, June 25, 1997 ):
This "factoring" is the art of media planning. If it were achieveable by application of established values, media planning would all be done by computers and there would be little use for media planners.

Expressing a Brand's synergy with specific media placements, and expressing the interaction of that synergy with the marketing situation and goals, then using those ideas to "sell" a plan are the art and craft of media planning filtered through experience.

The writing of plans for many brands uses these techniques. Major package goods companies have long used general factors for weighting media, based on measured attentiveness, average recall scores, etc.

About 12 years ago a company called TAA developed a more complex measure for evaluating attentiveness and attitude toward programs, as an added way to evaluate programs, beyond cpm and similar, simple counts. It went out of business fairly quickly.

Two research compilations the Guru mentions regularly, at the Advertising Research Foundation and the Newsweek Media Research Index are the best sources to consult for published research in this area.

 


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Monday, June 23, 1997 #1369
Newspaper advertising is often referred to as a "shopper's medium" and many advertisers list specific items with price points for those shoppers. Do you know of any statistics that indicate a percentage how many people fall into that "shoppers" category for various products (i.e. auto, grocery, clothing, retail merchandise, etc.) vs. those people who are more apt to shop at a particular store because of its location, reputation, overall prices where this type of advertising may not be as effective?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 23, 1997 ):
The The Newspaper Advertising Association is most likely to have research on this topic. A second choice would be the Advertising Research Foundation

 


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Monday, June 23, 1997 #1368
Dear Guru, (1) can you refer me to related research/ studies done in the area of qualitative content analysis of TV and print advertisements in Asia, especially in the comparison of Chinese and English advertisements? (2) Also, is there any literature on the deconstruction of meaning in advertisements? (3) What coding criteria should we use in constructing and deconstructing meaning in advertisements? Thanx!

 

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 23, 1997 ):
The Advertising Research Foundation library maintains the best records of U.S. research of this sort plus lists of international sources.

 


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Friday, June 20, 1997 #1367
For TV planning, should we look at planning GRPs on a weekly basis or on a burst campaign basis? In our country, it can build reach very fast and easy.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 20, 1997 ):
Without knowing the country to which you're referring, the Guru can't comment on specifics. In various countries, due to consumer's media consumption habits, media availability, and product purchase behavior, the right way to plan continuity vs burst, pulses, waves or flights varies.

The worst mistake is to assume that what is right generally applies to every case. Just as in the US, Hispanic media must be planned completely differently than General Market media, because Spanish media's relative strengths and availability are different, so too, can each country have its own, best answers.

 


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Thursday, June 19, 1997 #1366
Dear Guru, I have a set of urgent questions to ask of you. I have a meeting tomorrow, and need your help! 1. How is effective reach calculated? 2. Reach v/s Frequency -- when should one be given priority / importance over the other? 3. Is there any way of taking creative into account while analysing competition? If yes, can a system of weights be worked out? 4. How do you reconcile to the vast difference between reach/frequency deliveries from a Peoplemeter system as opposed to the Diary system? My client refuses to accept a 4+ reach of 30% being accustomed to levels of 70% for the same plan! Would greatly appreciate your immediate reply.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 19, 1997 ):
1) In any schedule of several commercials, some of the target group will see only one, some will see two, some will see three, some will see four, some five, etc, etc.

The actual measurement is based on tracking the cume of several different advertisers schedules in a single measurement period such as one month of the PeopleMeter.

A mathematical model that will match the measured GRP/Frequency is calculated so that plan deliveries can be predicted. Going more deeply into the actual measurement, it can be determined how many people of each demographic group were exposed to each commercial in the schedule and a model calculated which will predict that performance for a plan.

For example, below is the typical output of a computer models' frequency distribution, showing what percent of the target saw exactly n commercials and what percent saw n+. (this example is from Telmar's ADplus):

                    Frequency (f) Distributions 
                           ------------------------------------- 
                                  % who saw
                                 ---------------
                          #seen exactly  at least     
                          ----- -------  -------
               Target:      f     rch    rch    
               P18-49      ---   -----  -----   
                            0     69.1  100.0   
                            1     11.5   30.9    
                            2      6.0   19.3    
                            3      3.7   13.4   
                            4      2.6    9.6   
                            5      1.8    7.1    
                            6      1.3    5.2   
                            7      1.0    3.9   
                            8      0.7    2.9   
                            9      0.6    2.2   
                           10+     1.6    1.6   
                           20+     0.0    0.0    

2) Reach vs Frequency: The determination of emphasis here can be a complicated analysis making up the greater part of a plan's documentation, under the heading of "communications strategy." A commercial so powerful that it's sell is overwhelming in one exposure might take the "Let's buy one spot in the Superbowl" route as did the Macintosh computer with the classic "1984" execution.

In more competitive situations, competitors' levels are taken into account, clutter in the media of choice, copy quality, etc. Obviously a balance must eventually be struck between reach and frequency based on judging all these factors.

3) There are several ways to take creative into account while setting up reach vs frequency goals;

The complexity or simplicity of the message

The number of commercial in the pool

how close your commercial is to the established "wear-out" level

The balance of :30 to :15

etc, etc. can all be assigned factors and totalled or averaged to give a reach vs frequency emphasis factor

a similar exercise can also set effective frequency thresholds

4) There should not be "vast" differences between effective reaches based on people meter and diary systems if schedule GRP and other aspects are the same. 5 or 10% would be the range the Guru would expect.

A plan with a 70 reach at the 4+ level would be delivering in the range of 98% total reach. It sounds as if your client may be confusing a plan with 70 reach and an average frequency of 4 with 70 at an effective frequency of 4. Or perhaps confusing 4-week reach with a long term cume?

 


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Friday, June 13, 1997 #1365
Dear Guru, Could you please give your opinion on what can be viewed as a recommended level of GRP, frequency and effective frequency for a highly competitive advertising category on TV. As an example we can take a carbonated soft drinks' category. What should be the planning guidelines? When and why we should use flighting (pulsing) or what is the rationale for a continous campaign. Additionally to TV which other media should we use and why? Thank you in advance, Bob

 

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 13, 1997 ):
You are actually asking for the complete Objectives, Strategies and communications tactics of a full scale media plan, without offering enough background.

Nevertheless, here are some considerations:

One theory of competitive media planning calls for delivering a minimum of 10% more impressions than the key competitor, in head to head media. This assures beating the competition in GRP, reach and effective reach.

Budget is a consideration. If there is not enough money to compete as above nationally, then selecting geography where the delivery advantage can be maintained should allow you to beat the competition, bit by bit, until you can afford national support.

When there are time-sensitive promotional issues, then pulsing can be an effective way to deliver more impressions over the crucial period. Recent media theory has emphasized the benefits of continuity, because "the impression delivered closest to the purchase decision is the most effective impression." In the soft drink category, where purchase decisions are constant, continuity may be generally preferable to pulsing.

In other, highly competitive, seasonal categories pulsing may be needed.

As far as recommending other media, that calls for more information, but please look at the Guru's Media Advertising Strenghths

 


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Monday, June 09, 1997 #1364
Many television stations are assigning dollar values to sponsor audio/video tags on television promo spots which are essentially promoting a THEIR television special. Do you see any inherent "VALUE" to these audio / video mentions on promos? If so, how would you value it? Thanks.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 10, 1997 ):
It is reasonable and normal for sponsor mentions in promotions of on-air programs or off air events to be presented as having some sort of value. Most marketers would accept that any Brand mention has some value. Certainly, the value is not comparable to a commercial announcement; it lacks any sell and may be mixed in with other Brand's mentions.

The Guru has always calculated the value of these mentions in two steps:

1 - Calculate the pure time ratio of the mention, i.e. if the metion runs 5 seconds, that's one-sixth of a :30.

2- Reduce that value by half, to account for the lack of selling power. Of course this is an arbitrary factor. In any case, the Guru would not pay for these mentions, but only consider them as added value in making a purchase decision.

 


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Friday, June 06, 1997 #1362
Advertising sales models. do you have any for newspapers new staff.

My question is aimed at finding your opinion on web sales staff development or integration. Should a newspaper company try to train the existing print staff to sell their internet products and services or should a new internal staff be formed. Do you have any examples?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 06, 1997 ):
This is purely a matter of opinion. On one hand the major computer magazine publishers, like Ziff-Davis or CMP who sell print space as well as space on major web sites, use different salespeople for each.

Smaller newspapers may not find there is sufficient business to justify a separate staff. Whether the website advertising is most often given away as merchandising or sold in its own right to the same local advertisers as the print or sells to national advertisers who might not be in the paper, would contibute to the decision.

The kinds of measurement and ways of deciding about where to advertise are quite different for on-line vs traditional media. It would seem most efficient to the Guru to train one of your print sellers in the intricacies of the 'net, and build around that person's learning with additional staff.

You may also find that there is insight offered by the very useful site of the Newspaper Advertising Association. The Guru believes they may have compiled various newspapers experience with selling the web. If not, they should.

 


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Friday, June 06, 1997 #1361
Hi, I'm a student in Brazil. Please, could you answer these questions or indicate links in the web where I can find these info?

1) Concerning the choice of an agency, which are the most usual criteria?

2) Is there a formal communications / media plan? Who is responsible for ellaborating them and who actually applies it?

3) Which would be a good definition for briefing, and who makes it?

Only the first question relates to the choice of an agency. The second and third questions relate to the standard procedures adopted when an advertiser requests a job (for instance, the ellaboration of a communication strategy) for the agency.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 06, 1997 ):
1) Different advertisers will have differing criteria. One may emphasize experience within its category, another may focus on marketing insight, still another on creative thinking. Media support may or may not be an issue in a review. A wise agency probes for as much information about advertiser needs as possible. A wise advertiser does its best to prepare candidate agencies to show theselves to their best advantage in the context of what the advertiser wants. Often the preliminary candidates are selected through a questionnaire circulated by the advertiser. A lot can be learned from careful reading of the questionnaire, especially "between the lines."

2) "Major" advertisers usually work with a formal communications and media plan, using objectives, strategies, and tactical concepts along the lines presented in the Guru's "Parts of a Media Plan"

Other, smaller advertisers, especially local retailers, may just make a buy "by the seat of their pants"

In the formal situation, the advertiser, with the agency account staff will typically agree to marketing goals which the Media Planners can interpret into media objectives and then into strategies and tactics. Also typically, a media buying staff executes these plans.

3) Briefing usually means an organized presentation (in person or on paper) of the marketing situation upon which plans are to be built to resolve the situation. The advertiser may give a marketing briefing to the account staff. The account staff may brief the media staff. The advertiser may do all briefings, especially if they have their own internal media staff.

 


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Wednesday, June 04, 1997 #1360
Do you know where I can find any information on newspaper readership by day of week? I *know* that the newspapers and their associations know, but they don't seem to want media planners to know!

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, June 05, 1997 ):
Of course ABC doesn't audit by day of the week, but as you surmise, the papers must know the daily variations. The Guru suggests you begin by discussing a "pre-print insert" with the newspapers.

To allow you to plan quantities and assess production costs, they would have to discuss with you circulation by day of the week.

 


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Tuesday, June 03, 1997 #1359
I have been charged with a competitive TV media project whereby I need to get information on a local competitor's advertising on TV: how many spots do they run, on what stations, etc. Do you know of a company in Texas that does TV competitive analysis? Any information would be helpful. Thanks.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, June 03, 1997 ):
The leading industry supplier of the information you describe is CMR(Competitive Media Reports)

Their reports include several markets in Texas.

 


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Thursday, May 29, 1997 #1358
Is there any model or guideline that help me to allocate the media budget between regional media and local media, i.e. how much should be put behind regional media vs local media

 

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, June 02, 1997 ):
There are several models for accomplishing this media task. There are basic decision points that must be addressed before doing the actual calculations:

-Will you allocate impressions or dollars? (dollars leads to more efficient plans overall)

-Will you set goals for local delivery based on population, sales, brand development, category development or some other basis for assigning value to local markets?

A delivery goal is established for each market or region: e.g. let each DMA receive a percentage of all the plan's impressions equal to the DMAs percentage of the product's sales or the market's percentage of US population, etc.

Then, by examining how each national medium delivers its impressions to each DMA, using Nielsen data, ABC circulation, etc. you can determine how much media needs to be purchased locally to achieve the market by market goals.

The first time you must guess how much budget to allocate to national media, to see how the impressions fall before you have a local media budget to experiment with. Then it becomes an iteritive process to fine tune the allocation.

The Guru suggests you begin with about 75% in national media and 25% in local. If the local skews are stronger, e.g. many BDIs outside the 75 to 150 range, you will likely need a greater proportion of local funding.

It is possible to incorporate many adjustment factors, such as market efficiency, relative effectiveness of national and local media elements, etc.

 


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Thursday, May 29, 1997 #1357
Hi, I'm a student in Brazil. Please, could you answer these questions or indicate links in the web where I can find these info?

Only the first question relates to the choice of an agency. The second and third questions relate to the standard procedures adopted when an advertiser requests a job (for instance, the elaboration of a communication strategy) for the agency. 1) Concerning the choice of an agency, which are the most usual criteria? 2) Is there a formal communications / media plan? Who is responsible for ellaborating them and who actually applies it? 3) Which would be a good definition for briefing, and who makes it?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 06, 1997 ):
1) Different advertisers will have differing criteria. One may emphasize experience within its category, another may focus on marketing insight, still another on creative thinking. Media support may or may not be an issue in a review. A wise agency probes for as much information about advertiser needs as possible. A wise advertiser does its best to prepare candidate agencies to show theselves to their best advantage in the context of what the advertiser wants. Often the preliminary candidates are selected through a questionnalre circulated by the advertiser. A lot can be learned from careful reading of the questionnaire, especially "between the lines."

2) "Major" advertisers usually work with a fromal communications and media plan, using objectives, strategies, and tactical concepts along the lines presented in the Guru's "Parts of a Media Plan"

Other smaller advertisers, especially local retailers, may just make a buy "by the seat of their pants"

In the formal situation, the advertiser, with the agency account staff will typically aggree to marketing goals which the Media Planners can interpret into media objectives and then into strategies and tactics. Also typically, a media buying staff executes these plans.

3)Briefing usually means and organized presentation (in person or on paper) of the marketing situation upon which plans are to be built to resolve the situation. The advertiser may give a marketing briefing to the account staff. The account staff may brief the media or creative staff. The advertiser may do all briefings, especially if the have their own media staff, for example.

 


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Thursday, May 29, 1997 #1355
Advertising sales models. do you have any for newspapers new staff.

My question is aimed at finding your opinion on web sales staff development or integration. Should a newspaper company try to train the existing print staff to sell their internet products and services or should a new internal staff be formed. Do you have any examples?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, June 06, 1997 ):
This is purely a matter of opinion. On one hand the major computer magazine publishers, like Ziff-Davis or CMP who sell print space as well as space on major web sites, use different salespeople for each.

Smaller newspapers may not find there is sufficient business to justify a separate staff. Whether the website advertising is most often given away as merchandising or sold in it's own right to the same local advertisers as the print or sells to national advertisers who might not be in the paper would contibute to a decision.

The kinds of measurement and ways of deciding about where to advertise are quite different for on-line vs traditional media. It would seem most efficient to the guru to train one of your print sellers in the intricacies of the 'net, and build around that persons learning with additional staff.

You may also find that there is insight offered by the very useful site of the Newspaper Advertising Association. The Guru believes they may have compiled various newspapers expeience with selling the web. If not, they should.

 


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Tuesday, May 27, 1997 #1354
I WOULD TO KNOW IF THERE IS ANY REASERCH ABOUT PURCHASE POWER OF AGE 18-39. I WANT TO KNOW WHY IN U.S.A THE DEMOGRAFIC RATINGS IS TO GROUP 18-34, WHAT IS THE REASON FOR THAT. THANK YOU MERAV

 

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 27, 1997 ):
There is considerable research on purchasing power of demographic groups, from resoures too numerous to mention.

Purchasing power may be defined as total income, total disposable income, total discretionary income, etc. The US Bureau of the Census has considerable data.

You ask why the U.S. uses 18-34 as a standard demo instead of 18-39. Why does the country you are familiar with use 18-39? The answers are probably the same, in terms of process, the U.S. marketing community has decided what suits their needs.

Several years ago, the media research committee of the American Association of Advertising Agencies issued a postion on which basic demographics should be included in syndicated audience and product research.

 


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Monday, May 26, 1997 #1353
Is there any sources that complied the advertising expendture (breakdown by medium)for Asia Pacific, Europe, North America and Middle East etc. Is there any sources that summarise the media scene for the above mentioned markets?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 26, 1997 ):
Saatchi & Saatchi compile an annual report (or at least they used to) called Media Fact, which includes details of world "ad spend" by country and region.

It is likely that other major international agencies have a similar compilation.

 


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Thursday, May 22, 1997 #1351
Dear Guru, where can I find some information about efficiency of perception of advertising on outdoor Ad. billboards by potential audience?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, May 23, 1997 ):
Please see the similar question about outdoor, below, on May 15th

 


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Tuesday, May 20, 1997 #1350
How do marketers determine what cities they will conduct test marketing in? Peoria, Illinois used to be a popular test market....what made it so desirable and what criteria are important in determining test markets?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 20, 1997 ):
There are several criteria that may be considered:

Is the test market representative of the U.S. or the potential marketing region?

This representativeness might be judged based on various demographic characteristics.

Or on distribution or having a representative set of competitors active in the market.

Or the availability of IRI or Nielsen scanner data or other research tools to read results.

Or the local availability of the national media under consideration.

Or purity of the media environment, i.e. minimal spill-in / spill-out of broadcast media, newspapers, etc.

Or size / media pricing which made testing inexpensive.

Peoria would have met several of these standards. Nielsen and others maintain guides for the specific purpose of comparing market characteristics in selection of test markets.

 


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Monday, May 19, 1997 #1349
What is the standard rule for averaging breaks when doing a television post buy analysis? Some television stations are telling us it's a 15 minute before and after window.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 19, 1997 ):
The Guru agrees that the best way to average a break position is generally by averaging the preceding and following quarter hour measurement. However, Nielsen also reports "break" audiences in the time period section of their report. Some agencies make a policy of using this break rating when a spot airs within ±2 minutes of the exact break time or some other acceptable standard time tolerance.

 


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Friday, May 16, 1997 #1347
Do you have any recent information about magazine advertising wearout?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, May 16, 1997 ):
The Advertising Research Foundation and Newsweek Media Research Index are good sources for such research. The Magazine Publishers' Association, (212) 752-0055, also has an extensive research collection.

 


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Thursday, May 15, 1997 #1346
Are there any studies that quantify the differences in ad impact/recall etc. by varying sizes of outdoor (8-sheet, 30-sheet, bulletins with or without extensions)? Where could I find that info?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, May 16, 1997 ):
The Guru always begins with the libraries of the Advertising Research Foundation and the Newsweek Media Research Index, for topical research needs. You can also try the major out-of-home vendors, such as Outdoor Systems at (212) 297 6400

 


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Tuesday, May 13, 1997 #1345
Since "PRICING WEB SITE ADVERTISING" was first published (it's not dated but I'm guessing '96?) have there been any 'advances' in the methodology for pricing web advertising beyond either the ModemMedia model or the alternatives suggested? I am not an advertising professional (and they said us geeks use obscure achronyms?), and I am also looking for a concise FAQ type document that might explain the formulae and jargon (CPM, Frequency, Impressions in your excellent on-line dictionary and Depth which isn't) within the context of web advertising. Are there and other specific media terms (new or old) that are pertinent in a web advertising context (I got page view and hits)? Thank you.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, May 14, 1997 ):
The AMIC article was wriiten in the latter part of 1995, not long after the appearance of the Internet World May 1995 article which it discusses.

By the way, please be aware that AMIC has added a new area, called I-Trac, which discusses web terms and measurement and which includes a Web Glossary

In terms of newer thinking, consider the critqued article's central concepts:

1.Determine the ratio of hits between the web site's log and the number of file "hits" that make up the page carrying the ad. Divide logged hits by number of hits making up the page to calculate what we can call "page views." Then call page views "reach."

Since then, the software which interprets log files has developed so that it can distinguish pure "hits" from the more relevant page requests or "page views" . Hits today is taken to refer to any line in a log file, even errors. (Ad) Page requests is the analog to traditional media's "impressions".

2.Determine repeat viewing of that page and call that frequency.

We more commonly use "frequency" in terms of whole campaigns

3.Determine the success of viewings of that billboard ad in moving readers to the actual web site and call that "depth."

This measurement concept has come to be called "click-through" or ad click rate. Depth was a term only used as defined in this Internet World article.

Today pricing is generally based on cost per thousand (CPM) impressions. Rates seem to range from $15 cpm for the broadest, general audience sites' rotating banners, through $50 or so for search engines' keyword banners up to $100+ for "premium audience" on highly targeted business to business web sites. Another pricing model growing in popularity is "price per click," which charges for each vistor who clicks on a banner. The problem here is that the site hosting the banner must rely on the creative to generate viewr response -- it isn't all the effect of the web site itself. Therre is considerable literature today about how to influence clicks, as well as a growing body of research which argues for the awareness building effects of the banners, regardless of clicking response. Finally, simple revenue based models are the rising concept. In this, sites hosting banners are compensated with a portion of the transaction revenue generated by web surfers they send to retail type sites. An offshoot of this is a model for ad placement agency compensation based on the revenue generated by their placement of ads at recommended sites.

 


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Tuesday, May 13, 1997 #1344
Media Guru- Where can I go to find out how much Fortune 500 comanies are spending on webvertising...without having to pay thousands?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, May 13, 1997 ):
The Guru generally finds that when there is one supplier of research data who survives by charging for the data, it is unlikley to end up on the web for free. Nielsen, Arbitron, MRI,and Simmons are good examples.

Jupiter posts some of this info on its site and CMR(Competitive Media Reports) has announced an expanded web advertising service (for money).

Forrester Research may also have some info.

 


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Monday, May 12, 1997 #1343
Is there any model that relates advertisign awareness or brand awareness with media weight level? If there is no measurable coverage of the media, say computer magazine, what can we base our judgement on.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 12, 1997 ):
When there are published studies of this sort, the Guru can usually find them in the Advertising Research Foundation Library or in the Newsweek Media Research Index

There is, no doubt, a great volume of studies which are held proprietarily by advertisers.

There was a model the Guru once used, based on certain Agencies' many tests, which roughly assumed ad awareness would equal 91% of the existing awareness plus 3% of the previous week's GRPs (gross audience coverage).

It should be obvious that this model works best for brands with little or no going-in awareness and also dictates that anything less than 100 GRP per week leads to declining awareness for brands with awareness above 35%

Media coverage can be estimated for print media: circulation is usually known; readers-per-copy and composition can be approximated by comparison to similar publications.

It should also be kept in mind that awareness is not a factor of media alone, but depends, to great extent on creative.

 


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Saturday, May 10, 1997 #1342
We're looking to advertise on the Web in the state of Hawaii. The biggest problem we face is finding regional sites which would make sense to advertise or link up with. First, how do you find out what are the most popular sites for a given region. Second what is the right approach when you only need to promote within a small region instead of sending out a message with a lot of waste.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, May 11, 1997 ):
Remember that the Web is inherently "World Wide." When a web site is put up, it may be visited by anyone in the world. A web site about Hawaii could interest people anywhere. For a web site to draw primarily from Hawaiian web surfers, it would probably have to be focused on local news, weather or movie listngs.

Hawaii is too small to allow user-centric measures like PC-Meter to produce individual site's local audience results. Site-centric measures like server logs may report location of the visitor, but all AOL users, for example, are recorded as located in Virginia, where the main AOL computers are.

You could use search engines like Yahoo or AltaVista to find sites with Hawaiian content and request any of their server log data which does reflect visitors from Hawaii or hope for sites that require registration and therefore know more about vistors.

The web is just not locally oriented. It would take a lot of traditional media promotion to build a site's local audience.

Sites with focused content, which appeal to the entire English speaking world by intent, are lucky to have 10,000 visitors per month. In proportion, what might be considered a strong draw for a Hawaii-only site, 20 visitors?

 


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Thursday, May 08, 1997 #1340
Dear Media Guru I'm having a heck of a time tracking down information on Shopping Cart advertising, you know those little ads on the carts in the Supermarket? Where do I look?? thank you Eric

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, May 08, 1997 ):
There's K-Mart Shopping carts , but the Guru believes that the company you probably want, the well known one in shopping carts, shelf talkers, in-store audio, etc, is ACTmedia, 1(800)543-1101

 


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Monday, May 05, 1997 #1338
test marketing, specifically media weight tests.Using sales as the criteria--what % of these tests produce readable results; what, if any,are the minimum weight levels recommended for testing and any other insights you can offer.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, May 05, 1997 ):
Different players have different rules-of-thumb. Since these tests are inherently proprietary, there will not be a large scale data base from which to generalize.

Large, testing-oriented companies, like P&G will have better informed "rules-of-thumb."

What per cent produce readable results is a somewhat vague question: "What percent produce positive results", or "What percent of tests are run for the full duration" are more practical questions. It is the Guru's understanding that, in either case, the answer is less than half.

Whole books exist to consider the variables which can blur the simple concept of weight test, such as mix, copy pool, number of stations or programs or magazine titles or continuity, which would likely change in execution of a greatly different weight.

What, after all, is the likelihood that more of the same advertising would not sell more than did a lesser quantity of advertising? In the Guru's experience, 1/3 has been the minimum considered testable, with 50% preferable. The Guru suggests the many articles on the subject published by the Advertising Research Foundation's Journal of Advertising Research.

 


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Friday, May 02, 1997 #1337
Dear Guru, CBS TV network is targetting for the audience 25-54 years of age. Since when are they doing? Is it a success - do they make more money per second sold than, say NBC, ABC or FOX, who aim at younger targets?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, May 02, 1997 ):
One alternate theory is that CBS is getting that audience by default, since everyone else is doing a better job of targeting the more "desirable" younger demographics.

The Guru recalls reports showing the other networks selling for higher unit prices. Publications like Ad Age provide regular reportage of ratings trends, audience demographics and up to the minute (claimed)average selling prices.

 


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Wednesday, April 30, 1997 #1336
looking for researches about media planning. i'll be glad if you could help.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, April 30, 1997 ):
The Guru's two favorite sources are the Newsweek Media Research Index and the Advertising Research Foundation Library

 


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Wednesday, April 30, 1997 #1335
How about city magazines? Any central source for them?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, April 30, 1997 ):
The Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) Consumer Magazine Source has a section of data for these magazines

 


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Wednesday, April 30, 1997 #1334
Dear Guru Could you suggest some WWW sites, books, or any literature abot direct response models of the media evaluation? Thanks.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, April 30, 1997 ):
As always, the Guru's two favorite literature sources are the Newsweek Media Research Index and the Advertising Research Foundation Library.

The Direct Marketing Association (DMA) may also have some of the information you want.

 


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Tuesday, April 29, 1997 #1332
Is there any one source for information about LOCAL print media other than the big local dailies?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 29, 1997 ):
Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) offers "Community Publication Advertising Source" which lists these weekly and "PennySaver" type publications.

US Suburban Press, Inc reps a long list of local papers.

Carol Karasick, VP Media and Marketing at Newspaper National Network can also help with local papers.

 


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Tuesday, April 29, 1997 #1330
Dear Guru, what is internet advertising place among aother media in theese days. Thank You Tomas Gedminas

 

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 29, 1997 ):
In U.S. terms, the web remains the smallest "national" medium, at about ½% of total ad spending. This makes it about half the volume of network radio.

 


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Monday, April 28, 1997 #1329
How tight is the spot TV market this year as compared to last year? I'm seeing dramatic increases this year in costs and lack of availablility.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, April 29, 1997 ):
The Guru's sources have not reported this tightness as a general situation.

Without knowing the markets, dayparts, season or demographic it is hard to comment more specifically, but in general it would be unusual to see an "off-year" tighter than a preceding olympics/elections year.

 


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Saturday, April 26, 1997 #1328
As a small ad agency starting out, how would I handle the media buying end for my clients?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 27, 1997 ):
There are two simple ways:

1) hire a resonably experienced buyer with good knowledge of ratings services and stewardship systems (pre-buy/ post-buy/accounting). Then acquire the needed ratings services and stewardship sytems. Ideally, you should have a media planner as well, and this assumes you have someone in place in the financial end to handle the billing.

2) Contract with one of the numerous, a la carte media services, who have these people and systems in place and can provide just as much if the service as needed, probably averaging a fee of 5% of billings placed, though there is a wide range of compensation arrangements.

Though the second way is the most economical as a start up, you would do well to have an experienced planner on staff under either method, and a Media Director as soon as affordable.

 


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Sunday, March 30, 1997 #1001
Where can I obtain a guide to preparing a business plan for a new magazine? Thanks -

 

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, April 27, 1997 ):
There are several Business Plan writer software packages which you should be able to find at any large software dealer.

For specifics about the unique elements to consider in a magazine's business plan, you might contact the Magazine Publishers' Association, (212)752-0055.

 


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Friday, March 28, 1997 #1002
I'd like to find out information on in-theater movie advertising. Any research on its effectiveness etc.? What companies sell it and is it sold locally and nationally?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, March 30, 1997 ):
The Guru's first thought for a sales organixation would be

Screenvision Cinema Network
6601 Center Dr W Los Angeles, CA 90045
(310-342-8240)

They should have the research and availability information you need.

 


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Thursday, March 27, 1997 #1003
Guru, I'm looking for a topline media report which comparesadvertising costs for various media groups from 1994-1996. I have checked MediaWeek's and InsideMedia's sites and can't find anything relating to this. I've also contacted Veronis Suhler which is quite expensive, but we may haveto go that way. Any other ideas? Thanks!

 

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 28, 1997 ):
The Guru agrees that it's inconvenient, but the trade media don't always post every valuable fact the report on their web sites. Inside Media would have printed the information you need, so it's probably the best source if you can find a library that has it. If you're near New York theres a resource called the NY Business Library at 34th and Madison.

With Inside Media having folded last week, there's reason to wonder about information sources for Media Central.

But, there may be a clearance sale onInside Media's back issues; call Cowles Media at (212)683-3540

 


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Wednesday, March 26, 1997 #1004
Where do you look to find the rankings and billings of a advertising agency?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 28, 1997 ):
See the similar Guru question and answer posted March 28.

 


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Tuesday, March 25, 1997 #1005
Hi, Do you know how much J. Walter Thompson companycharges for commission?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 28, 1997 ):
"Standard" agency commission is 15% of gross media cost. Different agencies have various other arrangements with individual clients, including other percentages, flat fees, retainers, hourly charges, etc.

 


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Tuesday, March 25, 1997 #1006
Hi, I am a student and I have been trying to find out the rankings of ad agencies, according to size-not according to gross income,. More specifically, I need to find out the rank according to size of J. Walter Thompson Company as compared to otherad agencies

 

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 28, 1997 ):
AdAge's "DataPlace" contains reprints of their reportage of such information. Though ranking is by gross income, billings are also reported.

 


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Monday, March 24, 1997 #1007
What is the total billings (for 1995 or 1996), and ranking, for TBWA Chait/Day, L.A.? (Just L.A.). Also what is the total number of their offices in L.A.?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 28, 1997 ):
Consult the Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies orAdweek's AgencyDirectory for branch details. You will probably need to useyour library's index of business periodicalsAd Age or a service likeLexis/Nexis to find an AdAge article breaking down billingsby office.

 


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Saturday, March 22, 1997 #1008
What are the media habits as surveyed by Media Dynamics?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 24, 1997 ):
The complete answer to your query would fill hundreds of pages. There is a great deal of Media Dynamics' data here at AMIC, in Rates, Dates and Data, though it's only a sampling.

 


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Friday, March 21, 1997 #1009
What should be the minimum demo rating for a prime television spot on any schedule?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 21, 1997 ):
The Guru doesn't judge "prime" strictly by rating. Is the Prime daypart in your plan because of how prime builds reach, because of the program types available, or just because larger ratings "feel good."

Prime cumes well, not just because of larger ratings but also because of the larger pool of potential viewers available during prime hours and because the once a week programs tend to have better audience turn-over. This is one reason why the prime hours on independent stations are often categorized as fringe, rather than prime

If however, you need to focus on ratings for ratings' sake a sensible rule of thumb would be to use the average of the next best daypart as the minimum rating for prime.

If rating size is your only standard, why pay premium, prime CPP for programs rated lower than more efficient ones in other dayparts?

 


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Thursday, March 20, 1997 #1296
I have a client that is interested in obtaining an easy to read and understand book on reach and frequency. Do you know of one? Thanks.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, April 23, 1997 ):
There are two types of books that would cover "reach and frequency." Statistics texts and media planning texts. In either, most of the content would be about othewr topics. The media planning text is probably more useful. One such is Advertising Media Planning, by Jack Z. Sissors and Lincoln Bumba. It's available from Amazon Books and other sellers of texts. The ARF's library contains many articles on the topic which might fully answer your needs, and their publication about the "ARF Media Model is a classic.

 


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Thursday, March 20, 1997 #1010
Where can I find data on the size of the cable tv market, especially on the segment focusing on latin america? I´m also interested in the number of companiesthat are taking this area as their objective.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 21, 1997 ):
MTV and most of the news oriented networks like MSNBC and CNN have aimed at Latin American audiences as have US Spanish networks like Univision and Telemundo.MOst of these are headquartered in Miami, "the capitol of Latin America." A salesperson from any one of these would probably be able to answer your question in detail.

One source of US Cable penetrationusing NSI, for November1995 shows about 66% of TV homes with cable.

 


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Thursday, March 20, 1997 #1297
I'm new to advertising; how would I go about marketing a 900 number, and later a book, to the true-crime audience?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, April 23, 1997 ):
Full marketing plans are beyond the scope of Guru answers. The short answer, from a media perspective, is to learn about the media habits of the people who would be the most likely users of your 900 number and buyers of your book, and place ads in those media.

 


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Thursday, March 20, 1997 #1011
Hi, where could I find answers to the following questions:
* What are the most used vehicles to advertise on the net?
* What are the costs to advertise through these vehicles?
* Are there any audience rates availabel for these vehicles?
* What are the rules and regulations to advertise on the net?
* What is the effectiveness of advertising on the net?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 21, 1997 ):
The Guru could write a book in answer to these questions.

  • Top sites:Jupiter Communications is the best accepted ad spending tracker, and this link presently gives 1996 total billings for the top 10 sites.
  • Costs to advertise:
    Webtrack is one source of web advertising prices. (read with care, sometimes cpm is listed as if it were a total price)
    FocaLinkprovides cost as well as content/audience information.
  • Audience:
    PC-Meter reports audience for hundreds of sites.
    MRI and Simmons also report web site audiences.
  • Rules: It's still the Wild, Wild, Web as far as regulations go. There is some standardization in agreement to definitions on "impressions" as a basis for ad pricing according to cost-per-thousand impressions. and ad pricing per banner "click-through." There is also some ad size standardization thanks to CASIE and the IAB. Details of these sizes and definitions will be listed in AMICs new I-Trac area. Meanwhile, see the CASIE Definitions and CASIE Standards for banners.
  • Ad effectiveness: Ad effectivenss will vary by ad type and appropriateness of placement. The same could be said for any medium. There is a CASIE Research Compendium which offers several studies on the topic.

 


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Thursday, March 20, 1997 #1012
Media Guru! I`m a student at the Budapest Universityof Economic Sciences. I`m working with an essey on thebasic of media planning/buying. Maybe you can suggestsome web-sites which includes articles or case studieson this topics. Thank you for your help.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, March 20, 1997 ):
Of course, the Guru's "Parts of a Media Plan will be useful.

The University of Texas at Austin's Advertising Department has an excellent site devoted to media planning.

In addition, the Guru's old favorites, the Advertising Research Foundation and the Newsweek Media Research Index may have some useful information for your request.

 


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Thursday, March 20, 1997 #1013
Dear Guru,What in your opinion are the personal qualities andprofessional qualifications for a media planner? Thanx

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, March 20, 1997 ):
The Guru believes the the key personal qualities are an eagerness to learn, and ability to learn and and openess to new information.

Professional qualifications today include

-good mathematical skills, e.g. ability to rough-estimate percentages without a calculator, to avoid being overly reliant on computer output.

-Computer skills

-Writing skills, especially the ability to explain though processes logically and clearly

 


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Wednesday, March 19, 1997 #1014
I need an example of a media plan, could you give me one? I am doing one for a breakfast bar

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, March 20, 1997 ):
A complete description of allof the parts of a media plan is defined in the Guru Sectionof AMIC Parts of a Media Plan. Note that most media plans containonly a limited set of the information described. Some are fairly brief documents, while in other situations a more complete plan is required.

 


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Wednesday, March 19, 1997 #1016
What are the going numbers for total ad exposures per person per day? Is it possible tobreak down the average into the different media?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 19, 1997 ):
The Guru has seen estimates from a few hundred to many thousands.

The Guru tends to go along with one of the best accepted estimates, that there are about 245 ad exposures daily, 108 from TV, 34 radio and 112 print.

Others estimate 3000, 5000 or more. Even the 245 is "potential" and perhaps only half are real exposures.

The higher estimates probably include all marketing exposure including being in the vicinity of product labels or actual products with trademarks visible, such as your car, computer, fax, phone, shirt, pencil, paper towel in the bathroom, etc.

Just think, if we were really exposed to 3000 advertising messages per day, at an average of just 10 seconds apiece (accounting for radio :60's and brief exposure to billboards), these exposures would consume 8.33 hours out of our 16 waking hours per day.

The Guru is sceptical.

 


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Wednesday, March 19, 1997 #1015
What are the going numbers for total ad exposures per person per day? Is it possible tobreak down the average into the different media?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 19, 1997 ):
The Guru has seen estimates from a few hundred to many thousands.

The Guru tends to go along with one of the best accepted estimates, that there are about 245 ad exposures daily, 108 from TV, 34 radio and 112 print.

Others estimate 3000, 5000 or more. Even the 245 is "potential" and perhaps only half are real exposures.

The higher estimates probably include all marketing exposure including being in the vicinity of product labels or actual products with trademarks visible, such as your car, computer, fax, phone, shirt, pencil, paper towel in the bathroom, etc.

Just think, if we were really exposed to 3000 advertising messages per day, at an average of just 10 seconds apiece (accounting for radio :60's and brief exposure to billboards), these exposures would consume 8.33 hours out of our 16 waking hours per day.

The Guru is sceptical.

 


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Tuesday, March 18, 1997 #1017
What are the going numbers for total ad exposures per person per day? Is it possible to break down the average into the different media?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 19, 1997 ):
The Guru has seen estimates from a few hundred to many thousands.

The Guru tends to go along with one of the best accepted estimates, that there are about 245 ad exposures daily, 108 from TV, 34 radio and 112 print.

Others estimate 3000, 5000 or more. Even the 245 is "potential" and perhaps only half are real exposures.

The higher estimates probably include all marketing exposure including being in the vicinity of product labels or actual products with trademarks visible, such as your car, computer, fax, phone, shirt, pencil, paper towel in the bathroom, etc.

Just think, if we were really exposed to 3000 advertising messages per day, at an average of just 10 seconds apiece (accounting for radio :60's and brief exposure to billboards), these exposures would consume 8.33 hours out of our 16 waking hours per day.

The Guru is sceptical.

 


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Sunday, March 16, 1997 #1300
Where can i get competitive web advertising spending info? What other kinds of web advertising are there besides banner advertising?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, April 23, 1997 ):
CMR(Competitive Media Reports) is one source of web advertising spending information.

Jupiter is an online source. Both report on the top revenue sites and top spenders, because the web has so many thousands of possible sites and thousands of advertisers.

In addition to banners, there are full page (full screen) ads to which banners link, or which are part of sites.

The term "banner" is merely used to refer to a small ad, typically from 50 x 50 pixels up to 460x70 pixels, which is itself a link to a web site or larger ad.

 


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Saturday, March 15, 1997 #1303
Dear Guru. I have some questions about RADIO media-planning: 1. Could you recommend the book(s) which contains: a) definitions of the standard coefficients: GRPs, Reach, Frequency, Time Spend Listening (TSL), Average Rating b) Information about statistical models used for computing these numbers c) Sample outputs from radio media-planning software 2. I have download an educational software from University of Texas. Do you know any other places where can I import demo or edu software for media-planning 3. TSL is additive what means that: a) TSL for (say) 3 hours is a sum of appropriate 12 quater data b) TSL for a whole day is a sum of 12 x 4 quater values c) TSL for (say) three stations is a sum of appropriate three components But what is the behaviour of the Average Rating in these three, described above, cases?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 24, 1997 ):
Radio planning is covered in general planning texts, such as Sissors and Bumba, mentioned in the adjoining Guru answer. The booklet provided by the RAB (Radio Advertising Bureau) will give you the definitions you want. So would a technical reference manual from Arbitron. Since TSL, (time spent listening) is behavior expressed as a quantity and attached to one station at a time by one listener, the TSLs may be added together. This is different than ratings which are percentages and can only be combined or averaged with weightings according to the population groups projected.

 


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Friday, March 14, 1997 #1019
Which ad agency specializes in "Food Court" and Wash Room advertising?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, March 15, 1997 ):
The Guru does not think it likely that any agency would specialize in such advertising. For this to make sense advertisers would need to think they should take this relatively small part of their budget to a different agency than the one that does their principal work. More likely that an agency decides there is a great opportunity for a client in food courts or washrooms ( a paper towel / napkin maker perhaps?).

If someone does know of such an agency, please send email to Help the Guru.

 


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Thursday, March 13, 1997 #1020
Which corporation used a campaign slogan similar to:Powerful Solutions for a Powerful Planet? Do you know the exact slogan?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, March 13, 1997 ):
This isn't a media question, but Video MonitoringServices could probably find the answer.

 


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Thursday, March 13, 1997 #1018
I am in the process of researching software used to plan and buy for a direct response project, and could use some guidance. What programs do you recommend I purchase to get started? Or do you know where I could go to get advice?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, March 15, 1997 ):
Telmar's Ad Plus Suite containsthe ability to analyze direct mail in conjunction with other media.Pleawe note that Telmar is the sponser of AMIC.

You might also want to contact theDirect Marketing Association (DMA).

 


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Wednesday, March 12, 1997 #1021
Hello Media Guru: I need to know WHO determines if a media market (DMA) is considered "Small" "Medium" or "Large." I cannot find a list that says what a market is--I only know what the generally accepted industry usage is, but I can't find any specific source that says what constitutes whether a market is considered Small, Medium, or Large-sized. Please help!

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, March 13, 1997 ):
There are no official standardized definitions of these relative terms. Some people might consider top 25 large, markets ranked 26-100 medium and the remaining 100+ to be small. The next person might do it differently. Using the Nielsen A / B / C&D definitions would also be a reasonable approach.

 


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Wednesday, March 12, 1997 #1023
I am interested in marketing a new high-tech unifiedmessaging product on the internet. I am presently puttingan internet site together complete with an autobot. During this process, I received an e-mail from someoneselling a "direct e-mail" service. This person indicatedthat he had had significant success by mailing about 1000mailings a day. He said that the direct e-mailings weredone in such a way that it was not spamming. The productis described at the following web site:http://www.gemstars.com. Would you give me feedback as towhether this is what it advertises itself to be. Is it a"friendly" way to do advertising via e-mail or is it amass spamming service.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, March 12, 1997 ):
The Guru found this URL to produce a "Server does not have a DNS entry" error.

Nevertheless, the Guru believes
-E-mail spamming service vendors always claim a high success rate and that what they send is not SPAM.

- The only way the Guru would consider such a mailing not to be SPAM is if the mailing went to known users of messaging software or messaging hardware, i.e . a legitimate target. Even then there is no basis to assume the mail would be welcome. (The Guru himself has an alphanumeric-capable cell phone, but would find such an e-mail an intrusion)

 


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Wednesday, March 12, 1997 #1304
Dear GuruI am interresting in your oppinion on the changing shape of the media environment.What do you think how the media changing for the near future, what are the main trends in the media and how will it change the media planning?Thanks.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 24, 1997 ):
Media have always changed. Once there were only print media and billboards. Then radio, then TV. Not only do new media arise, but the numbers of media vehicles of each type of each type proliferate. The web is only the latest and most explosive example of this proliferation. What causes the changes for the planner is the availability of research and hard facts on which to base decisions, rather than using theory. One of the biggest changes may be the growing emphasis on direct response models for evaluating media effectiveness, rather than awareness, recall, or requests for additional information.

Or is it the ability to apply computer models to planning?

 


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Tuesday, March 11, 1997 #1305
How can I get some ARF research like The ARF "Gold Standard" and ARF Guidelines for Audience Research on Business Publications? I live in Mexico

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 24, 1997 ):
The ARF is quite happy to sell copies of these reports. They have an ordering mechanism on the site or call them at(212) 751-5656.

 


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Tuesday, March 11, 1997 #1306
Hi. Where can I find the papers of the Reasdership Research Symposium (Berlin, 1995)? Thanks...

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 24, 1997 ):
The ARF should have these papers if they were published.

 


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Tuesday, March 11, 1997 #1022
i am currently researching the effects that advertising will have on the gaming industry in the uk, should the law change.the research will serve as an mba dissertation. i am at the literature search stage, and wonder if you can help me as i compile a list of relevant reading on the effects of advertising.many thanks

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, March 13, 1997 ):
The Guru's preferred sources for such literature searches are the Advertising Research Foundation's library and Newsweek Media Research Index

However, it is possible that there is no US history of a legal gambling industry changing from advertising prohibited to advertising permitted.

 


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Tuesday, March 11, 1997 #1024
how much money is it to advertise in surfer magazinefor one full page color ad?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 11, 1997 ):
Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) for Consumer Magazines ought to be in your school library.

 


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Monday, March 10, 1997 #1307
What source are interactive media buyers turning to to make purchase decisions?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 24, 1997 ):
PC-Meter is one syndicated source of web site audiences. Services like Focalink compile content analysis plus audience data into a useful planning tool.

 


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Sunday, March 09, 1997 #1309
CPM Audience $/(000)of American Baby Magazine vs. CPM of The Family Channels American Baby?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 24, 1997 ):
You need to specify an audience demographic to compare, of course. These two media themselves would then be able to supply the information you need.

 


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Saturday, March 08, 1997 #1312
Dear guru, I was just wondering if there were any ratings listed for national tv, cable, and radio buys? I've checked various sources, and all I could muster up was ratings by spot markets, but nothing for average national ratings.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 24, 1997 ):
There are some data on AMIC at Rates, Dates and Data. Since the ratings providers are in the business of selling these data, you will have to buy the information or ask the individual media which buy them to share the data with you, in pursuit of your order.

 


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Saturday, March 08, 1997 #1313
I'm going to start (next month) to work on media planning. I'm not an experienced guy. I graduate my self in business communications and marketing. I wanna be a good professional. What's your advise for a beginner?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 24, 1997 ):
This is a very broad question. You should find yourself a mentor. If there is no one suitable in your new company, get friendly with a media salesperson who seems knowledgeable.

 


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Friday, March 07, 1997 #1314
Currently I am researshing markets for a 2,000+ chain of discount stores across the U.S.I have received a listing of all the locations with addresses and zip codes. I now need tosort each address and assign it to a DMA. What is the best way to approach this project or doI need to do it the old fashion way and look it up city by city? Help!!

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 24, 1997 ):
Nielsen and Arbitron both have reference books that easily associate zip codes directly with DMAs.

 


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Friday, March 07, 1997 #1025
Dear Media Guru, regarding controlled trade magazines, what would you consider a reasonable yearly percentage breakout, before you consider the magazine does not control its circulation well? Ideally, 100% qualified within a year is best. However in cases where circulation trickles two and three years out, what would you think? I'm just curious if you use a "rule of thumb" when you begin planning. Thanks in advance.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, March 08, 1997 ):
The Guru believes that using such data to evaluate publications is a relative standard rather than an absolute standard. Assuming a set of candidate publications all have the great majority of circulation qualified, is 90% bad? Is 80% bad? Is 80% worse than 100%, if the absolute number qualified in the 80% publication is greater than in the 100% title, and all other price/quality issues are equal?

This is just one of many factors that can contibute to a planner's selections, and should be used in perspective.

 


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Friday, March 07, 1997 #1026
What steps are taken for a direct respone campaign?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, March 08, 1997 ):
Given the nature of this forum, the Guru's answer assumes you refer to the media planning steps and specifically to the aspects that differ from other kinds of media campaigns.

For instance, in any media campaign, delivering messages to the right target is crucial. However, in a direct response campaign, the target is more often judged on response characteristics than on general demographic characteristics supposed to be true of product users. This can mean mailing to a list of persons known to buy by mail order, in product categories similar to the one at hand, or by trial and error, broadcasting direct response commercials in programming that is shown to produce response.

It is one of the awesome mysteries of direct response that one placement in a program with "X" number of the right demographic audience may repeatedly generate less response than another program with far more target audience.

Therefore response tracking during campaigns is a key difference. In broadcast this can mean that an "inbound telemarketing" company is hired to receive calls. This company takes orders, and send reports the next day tracking sales by time, which can then be associated with particular commercials or infomercial placements. Schedules may then be adjusted to focus on best producing times / stations / programs.

Similarly, variations in direct mail copy or mailing list may be compared.

 


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Thursday, March 06, 1997 #1027
Is there any information on line concerning the values and lifestyles (VALS)? -- as described in the Marketer's Guide to Media, '96-97 under the marketing term "psychographics" (page 8). In particular, charts, graphs, etc? If not, where could we find that information?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, March 07, 1997 ):
It's all at SRI'ssite.

 


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Wednesday, March 05, 1997 #1315
I'm a freshman in college..and interested in finding an internship in the advertising area in NYC for this summer..is it too early to look?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 24, 1997 ):
Actually, it's somewhat late. The Guru will try to contact you directly with suggestions.

 


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Monday, March 03, 1997 #1316
Looking for articles/research as to why web designing should be handled by the marketing department; vs. the M.I.S. department.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, April 24, 1997 ):
In the Guru's opinion, the greatest flaw of most commercial websites is that they display great technical mastery, computerwise, but little sense of what should have been their marketing purpose. The Guru has not seen articles about this but many marketing and internet advertising e-mail discussions have debated this point intelligently. Their archives would help you. MouseTracks' List of Marekting Lists is the Guru's favorite resource for finding these discussions.

 


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Sunday, March 02, 1997 #1028
List the top 20 TV ADI's by population

 

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, March 03, 1997 ):
Take a look in the "Cost per TV rating Point area of AMIC's "Rates, Datesand Data" section.

CPP is listed by DMA rank order. By the way, "ADI" is dead as amedia term. Since ARBitron ceased measuring local TV, DMA is theonly viewership based, TV market definition in current use.

 


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Thursday, February 27, 1997 #1029
what is the process of planning and buying on the internet?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, February 27, 1997 ):
The process is very much like traditional media planning and buying. The current lack of good information about sites' audience size and demographics make the planner think harder. The lack of any readily available listing of sitesby category and price makes the buyer work harder.

Oneuseful planners and buyers resource is Focalink'sproduct, Market Match, which compiles a lot of what info isavailable on the largest ad supported sites, including AMIC.

 


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Thursday, February 27, 1997 #1030
Where would I find videos of commericial advertising, specifically Coca Cola and Levi?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, February 27, 1997 ):
Video Monitoring Services is the Guru's most common resource for commercial copies.

 


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Thursday, February 27, 1997 #1031
1. Assume a multi-media presentation in a large metropolitan shopping mall drawing 20 million shoppers per year. How would you approach the valuation of advertising in such a forum for major brands? 2. If there were 20 Million visitors, what model would you use for calculating exposures to any particular piece of advertising - such as an illuminated interior billboard - or a ten minute show, which shoppers viewed with both entertainment and brand promotional content? 3. Finally, what would a major brand - such as a top athletic shoe or fashion concern - pay per year to have their brand creatively presented at the point of sale in a shopping mall with 20 million potential visitors, including children? Ballpark?Guru, I am a media novice. Please help. Thanks for your assistance.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, February 27, 1997 ):
Major Malls count not only total visitors, but foot trafficpatterns through the mall, and can usually give you traffic pastkey points.

The traffic past your display area, divided bythe time slice allotted to a piece of advertising will give areasonable audience estimate.

Out of home media may chargein the neighbourhood of $5 per thousand gross audience, whichgives you a $100,000 price.

Whether you can convince theadvertisers of the greater value of the multimedia element isquestionable. The Guru thinks you most difficult task isdemonstrating the entertainment value or stopping power of youradvertising, especially considering that the 20,000,000"visitors" to your mall may be just 1,000,000 averaging 20visits apiece.

 


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Wednesday, February 26, 1997 #1032
Hi GU!I am looking for everything I can find regarding wear-out. Have the Jan 1988 article from the Journal of Advertising Research---that pub has probably published more since then, but I can't find a way to get a list of past articles on their web site. Know of any other resources on this subject?Toni

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, February 27, 1997 ):
AMIC plans to begin offering JAR reprints on behalf of the ARF in the near future. For now, you can direct requests to the editor, Bill_Cook@arfsite.org

 


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Wednesday, February 26, 1997 #1034
How can media be used to build brand equity?What is the role of media in building brand equity?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 26, 1997 ):
From the Guru's perespective, you should look at media in it's literal sense of advertising vehicle.

Most of the work in building brand equity is done by the copy. To the extent media contributes, beyond general communication goals, it will be the media environment (programming / editorial adjaceny) that theplanner selects which most affects brand equity.

 


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Tuesday, February 25, 1997 #1035
Can you point me to a resource location on the web that listsnames of online media contacts for particular industries to sendout press releases to. I.E. if I have a press release to announcea great new product for a particular industry I want to be able tosend it to the right online publication. Thanks for any comments.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 26, 1997 ):
The Guru find the media address lists at O"Keefe's Internet Publicity Resources useful. You mightfind others through a search engine.

 


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Tuesday, February 25, 1997 #1036
We are planning a radio schedule with a demo of Adults55+. We have no research that gives us a cpp for thatdemo. If we took a Sparc cpp for Adults 25-54 and increased it, what would you recommend the increaseshould be? Thanks.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 26, 1997 ):
Determine the rating for 55+ and its index to the 25-54 rating.

Divide the 25-54 cpp by this index

(remember to treat the index as a decimal equivalent)

E.G. if 25-54 cpp = $100
and 25-54 rating = 2.0
and 55+ rating = 2.2
the index = 2.2 / 2.0 = 110 (or 1.10 in decimal form)

55+ cpp = $100 / 110 = $90.91

Since SPARC is market average, stations bought will effect accuracy. The stations making up a typical 25-54 buy maybe quite different than the ones you would buy for 55+.

Targeting should allow you to do better.

 


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Tuesday, February 25, 1997 #1037
Is there Internet access to newspaper listings with demographic 1descriptions or a site where I can research a paper's content, focus, demos, ad costs, etc.? Also, I have a client wanting to advertise 900 numbers: Sports; Finance; Entertainment Lines. Is there an Internet Advertising Section for 900 Numbers?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 26, 1997 ):
For that much detail on specific newspapers, the best way would be to look up their individual sites through a searchengine such as Yahoo.

The Guru does not actually believe that most newspaper's sites have all you want. Some newspaper reps (Sawyer Ferguson, Knight Ridder, etc) may have sites listing data fro several papers. The TheNewspaper Advertising Association site is being revisedsowatch to see if they add data such as you request.

(900) numbers can generally be advertised, depending on theservice offering. Many media no longer offer Direct Responserates for (900)number advertisers.

 


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Monday, February 24, 1997 #1033
I have a small sportsmarketing company the looks for sponsors for teamsthroughout the US. I am looking for a listing, if itexists, that would rate the media markets of Charlotte NCagainst New York City as regards its relative media value.That is, the value of an advertising buy in a given market.Obviously, NTC is one of the top media markets in the country,ranking 1st or 2nd. How and where on the list does Charlotteplace? Thats what I need to find. I have a customer list(professional sports teams from major league level down tominor league baseball) in 216 markets. DMA or Metro Areas maymeet my needs as long as all areas of the country areincluded.

As you can no doubt tell, I have limited background inthis area but a business opportunity forces me to learnquickly.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 26, 1997 ):
You can find some industry standard costs, which will give exactly the ranking you need, right here on AMIC. They arein "Rates, Dates and Data" in the SQAD.

 


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Monday, February 24, 1997 #1038
I am hoping you can help me.I am an advertising sales manager for several commercial televisionstations in Scandinavia. As Denmark and Sweden are now in the EU, we arefor the first time permitted to run TV ads for beer, liquor and wine. I amwondering if you could tell me what percentage of all TV advertising in theUS is beer, wine and/or alcohol related.We are trying to determine what the market potential is for such ads here.Thank you very much!

 

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 24, 1997 ):
The US market has long turned its back on liquor advertising, though that barrier is now crumbling. Wine and beerthough, are very big.

Ad Age has annual reports on category investment, generally using data from CMR(Competitive Media Reports).

 


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Saturday, February 22, 1997 #1039
I am trying figure out the best way to calculate reach & frequency for the following:

Television Flight:
4 consecutive weeks (250 TRP's per week)
Then scaling back and running 175 TRP's per week - Every other week for the following 8 weeks.

How do you calculate R&F when your schedule runs on an every other week basis?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 24, 1997 ):
There is no basis for believing that an alternate week schedule of 700 total points (175 per week for 4 of 8 weeks) cumes to a different total than 87.5 grp per week for 8 weeks, as long as the scedules are otherwise identical in numbers of different announcements, and numbers of different episodes of the same programs.

It is true that if the schedules per week of activity were solarge as to exhaust reach potentials, the answer might bedifferent, but this is far below such levels

So the total schedule of the first four weeks at 250, plus the 4alternating weeks can be calculated as if there were lower levelconsecutive weeks.

 


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Friday, February 21, 1997 #1040
Do you have any information on retention of an ad, radio vs. television?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 22, 1997 ):
Studies like the ones you require are best found at Newsweek Media Research Index and Advertising Research Foundation.

 


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Tuesday, February 18, 1997 #1041
What is a good way to combine advertising with Spanish? Are there many opportunities at ad agencies writing copy in Spanish? Also, is there much opportunity finding a job in marketing research in this area?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 21, 1997 ):
There are numerous Spanish specialist advertising agencies,and Hispanic divisions of major agencies. The Agency Redbook,(Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies) which should beavailable at your library will list these. Similarly there aremany Hispanic specialist marketing research firms. The NYAMA'sGreenbook listsresearch firms with a topical index.

Also look, within AMIC, at Abbott Wool's Market Segment Resource Locator which has links to Hispanicagencies, and research firms.

 


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Tuesday, February 18, 1997 #1042
Dear Media Guru-Any suggestions on where I can find projected industry media cost increases for 97/98?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 21, 1997 ):
The advertising media trade publications typically do annual issues on this topic. See MediaWeekand Inside Media

 


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Monday, February 17, 1997 #1043
When a planner has a small budget and it has been determined that television is the appropriate media vehicle, does it make sense to concentrate all of the GRPs in one or two dayparts? Example: late news and/or early morning for a business person 25-54?Thanks in advance for your thoughts.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 21, 1997 ):
If geography is not a variable, then the question relates principally to the balance of reach vs frequency to be acheived. Daypart concentration may increase frequency at the expense of reach, daypart dispersion will increase reach at the expense of frequency. Low cume dayparts like the ones you mention may deliver less reach than a single high cume daypart like prime.

Comparing several possible schedules which are affordable within your budget for their delivery of plan goals is a better course than trying to make the decision based on a generalization of what "makes sense."

 


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Monday, February 17, 1997 #1044
I need to discover the number of people who are conected to the internet by country around the world. I am particulary interested in South American, Central American, and Caribbean countries as well as the USA, and European Countries.I realize that the USA has the most information available. Is there any sourse for the number of people using or hooked up to the interent in the rest of the world?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 21, 1997 ):
On the one hand, there are as many estimates of these data as there are people willing to estimate them.

Begin at NUA Internet Surveys in AMIC's Research Monitor.

I Pro has a report called CyberAtlas which covers some of this information as well.

The downside of printed reports about the growth of internet is that they rarely get published while they are still current.

 


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Monday, February 17, 1997 #1045
I am interested in obtaining research that explores effective consumer promotion television weight levels. A typical consumer promotion window may be 2 - 3 weeks. Most consumer promotions are planned in the neighbourhood of 300 GRPs / week. Is there any research that has measured effective levels. I am trying to identifity an optimal level, a level (or range) below which response/sales suffer and/or above which response/sales do not substanitially increase.Goal- avoid spending too little or too much against a given promotion.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 21, 1997 ):
There are so many variable beyond GRP weight that the Guru doubts you will find simple answers.

Just a few are copy length, daypart mix, competitive arena, product interest, and commercial quality and wear-out status. Further, the Guru thinks that effective reach / frequency is a more useful quantitaive standard than pure GRP.

Two places to look for relevant research would be Newsweek Media Research Index or Advertising Research Foundation

 


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Friday, February 14, 1997 #1046
What are the average website construction prices for web page design companies.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Friday, February 14, 1997 ):
The Guru does not think there are meaningful "averages." He has heard of professional design at $15 a page (whatever page means to that designer) and of multimillion dollar sites.

So much depends on content, graphics, intereactivity, data bases, archives, etc, the Guru has no doubt that there are design students in colleges doing better work than professionals and at 10% of professionals' prices if you can find the right person.

You might want to consult AMIC's web designer, Jeff@AMIC.com

 


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Thursday, February 13, 1997 #1047
I asked the previous question about ethnic versus general newspapers.Are there any sources to which you can refer giving research - ordiscussing - the marketability of ethnic news?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, February 13, 1997 ):
Some of the ethnic business media, write frequent articles about erthnic news organiztions. These include Black Enterprise Hispanic Business and Hispanic Media and Marketing Update.

Also browse, on AMIC,Abbott Wool's Market Segment Resource Locator for connections to many US ethnic newsmedia.

In your own country, the Afrikaaner newspaper, Nasionale Koerante, used to compile articles and studies about ethnic media around the world, and may still do so.

 


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Wednesday, February 12, 1997 #1048
In South Africa there is a big debate about whether to publish"nonracial" newspapers or seek "ethnic" readerships (ie black, coloured, white). Thisobvioiusly has implications for marketing. What are your comments?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, February 12, 1997 ):
In the US, the major newspapers in heavily ethnic markets often do better with the ethnic communities (African American and Hispanic, at least) than do the specialized papers. The Guru's hypothesis is that the general papers' coverage of everyday news and advertising appeals to more of these market segments.

A specialized ethnic newspaper has to be a general resource as well as a special service to dominate its audience's media consumption.

 


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Tuesday, February 11, 1997 #1049
I WANT TO KNOW WHICH IS THE BEST BOOK FOR MEDIA PLANNING .I MUST AD THAT IT IS FOR THE ISRAELI MARKET WHICH HAS ONLY 2 CHANNELS AND ONLY ONE OF THEM IS COMMERCIALTHANKS

 

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, February 11, 1997 ):
In the US, Sissors and Bumba's "Media Planning" is considered the classic. This and other US texts may have very little relevance in another country where media availability, cume patterens and culutral context are totally different.

The Guru would suggest contacting a few local Universities' bookstores to find the most commonly used text for Israel.

 


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Monday, February 10, 1997 #1050
I'm interested in determining a definition of the term'addressability' as it pertains to cable and DTH systems. What are the key benefits of addressability, and how many homes are currently addressable. Also, where might I find results of the interactive TV trials that have actually occurred (as oposed to those that never got off the ground?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, February 11, 1997 ):
As the Guru regards the term, "addressability" refers to systems that can send different programming to individual households in response to that household's selection. This is most often seen in Pay-per-View systems, whether cable or satellite.

Searching the term "interactive tv" at Yahoowill lead to various information which you may find helpful. Addressable tv is almost antithetical to advertising, so the Guru's involvement has been minimal.

 


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Monday, February 10, 1997 #1051
Dear Guru,Our publishing company has recently aquired another company that hosts a site on the internet. This site is very popular with a solid demographic. As of yet there has been little effort to sell advertising/banners on the site. What would you suggest is the most effective (revenue producing) way of getting advertisers to place ads on our site?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, February 11, 1997 ):
The Guru suggests determining who is the ad decision maker at companies which would most benefit by advertising on your site; ie, have their own site an target the same demographic. Then approach them by mail or by phone followed with a good written piece documenting your selling points.

 


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Monday, February 10, 1997 #1052
How do I even begin the Internet planning/buying process ?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, February 11, 1997 ):
Assuming
1) you already know media planning/buying in general, and
2) you have already allocated a budget expressly to internet (Web) media,

Then your question would seem to be how to identify the appropriate web sites and how to evaluate and negotiate with them.Starting poins include;

Search engines which can be used to identify topically relevant sites.

Services such as FocaLink which compile descriptive material as well as audience info about sites into a database.

Specialist web media services such as i-traffic.

There are pure audience surveys such as PC-Meter, and there are traffic counters like Netcount.

 


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Friday, February 07, 1997 #1059
Where can I find information on the development of advertising before and after each of the 2 world wars in this century?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 08, 1997 ):
The Guru is not familiar with any advertising history focused especially on the wars. You will need to study general advertising history - try the AAAA -- and select the years you need.

 


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Friday, February 07, 1997 #1060
With the multiplication of TV with network, cable, direct through satellite, etc, radio already fragmented and press, what in your opinion are the more efective media investments? The traditional or new media? If new media? Which?. If a combination? A hint on what proportions?50% traditional against 50% new?.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, February 08, 1997 ):
The Guru believes broad generalities in answer to such questions are always mostly wrong.

Effectiveness of media investments always "depends." Who is your target? / what is the target's involvement with the specific medium? / how do the medium or individual vehicles of the medium fit with your message or creative or marketing strategy? / how does your product relate to the medium?

To bring people not very involved in the web to your web site you probably need traditional media mixed with web ads. To sell web related products, advertising on the web is probably the best investment. Media are not abstractions, they must be matched to targets and marketing goals.

 


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Thursday, February 06, 1997 #1054
Hello Guru - I am very interested in finding out what demographic variables are being tracked to support advertising buys on the web. I'd also like to know the specific range of responses tracked for each of those variables. Are there any that are being used consistently? Is anyone tracking personality traits of users and tracking that back to advertising buys????

 

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 09, 1997 ):
PC-Meter tracks browsing by windows PS's at home. They offere a lot of demographic detail and at this link provide top 25 sites by gender/age demos

Crestwoods' Inside Internst Review will soon be available through AMIC, and will cover all browsers

Simmons and MRI have also begun Web user demographics for major sites.

 


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Thursday, February 06, 1997 #1055
Where can I get a complete list of all direct marketing agencies. We need to buy mailing lists!

 

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 09, 1997 ):
DM Plaza's supplier's list is one of the Guru'sresources for finding such firms.Internet Public Access Corporation says they have a directory of AAAA and other agencies "coming soon" Under the "industry directories" link they have contact info for the Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies (The Redbook) generally considered the definitive source of the information you want, including geographic listings and account lists.

 


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Tuesday, February 04, 1997 #1056
What is the best way to determine effective reach? Any availabale research?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 09, 1997 ):
Effective reach refers to the concept that people exposed to advertising are only exposedd "effectively' beginning witha certian number of repetitions of the message.

originally, 3 tiems was the standard, based on the work of Ebinghaus in the 1880's, who tested learning of nonsense syllables.

Today logic and experience tells us that many factors determine the number of repetions necessary before recognition and understanding of a message will turn into motivation to buy.

The power of the creative, the clutter of the media used, the competitive environment, the interest of the consumer in the category, whether it is an impulse item otr considerd purchase are just a few of the 20+ factors commonly used to judge whether the effective level mustbe set at 3, 4, 6 or more.

 


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Tuesday, February 04, 1997 #1057
What is the best way to evaluate outdoor - qualitatively and quantitatively? Any available research?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 09, 1997 ):
In the US, outdoor is typically packaged in "showings" of 25 / 50 / 100 which generally mean 25 / 50 / or 100 grps per day, that is, a selection of locations with a total daily effective circulation equal to 25 or 50 or 100% of the adult population of the market. (demographic data is often very approximate).

Outdoor delivers very high reaches at low CPMs. Message lengths are of course quite limited.

Barring specific creative testing or pre-post attitude awareness and usage tracking, evaluation is very much a judgement call based on creative and your communications goals.

 


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Monday, February 03, 1997 #1058
How does one go about becoming a recognized agency sothey may earn media commissions?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 09, 1997 ):
The media generally "recognize" anyone as an agency, if they say they are one and place orders on behalf of an advertiser.

As far as "earning" commission goes, if the media quote a "gross" or "commissionable" rate, that means the bills will reflect this "gross" price, an agency commission of, typically, 15%, and a net due to the medium of the remaining 85%. If your arrangement with the advertiser is based on the once standard 15% commission, then you collect the full gross amount and remit the net to the medium.

There are many permutations of these arrangements between agency and advertiser these days.

 


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Monday, February 03, 1997 #1053
How does one go about becoming a recognized agency sothey may earn media commissions?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, February 09, 1997 ):
The media generally "recognize" anyone as an agency, if they say they are one and place orders on behalf of an advertiser.

As far as "earning" commission goes, if the media quote a "gross" or "commissionable" rate, that means the bills will reflect this "gross" price, an agency commission of, typically, 15%, and a net due to the medium of the remaining 85%. If your arrangement with the advertiser is based on the once standard 15% commission, then you collect the full gross amount and remit the net to the medium.

There are many permutations of these arrangements between agency and advertiser these days.

 


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Sunday, February 02, 1997 #1061
Do you have any research which demonstrates the advantages/disadvantages (effectiveness/ineffectiveness) of Free Sanding Inserts?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, February 03, 1997 ):

 


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Thursday, January 30, 1997 #1062
If it possible to acquire a mailing list of only "New Movers"into a specific community. Or it this too specific? What would be the accuracy of this list?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 30, 1997 ):
Yes, such lists exist. They can often beenacquired from or through utility companies, eg telephone or electric.

List houses should have them as well. DM Plaza's supplier's list is one of the Guru's resources for finding such firms.

 


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Wednesday, January 29, 1997 #1063
Where can I find past ad spending of a specific client?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 30, 1997 ):
CMR(Competitive Media Reports) is the major supplier of US ad spending data.

Trade publications like Ad Age may review specific clients in articles, from time to time

 


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Wednesday, January 29, 1997 #1064
I am trying to find information on a program that advertises in scholls. The name is Chris Wittle Communications and I believe they are in Nashville, but I cannot locate them and we do not have channel 2 in Anchorage Schools.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 30, 1997 ):
You are looking for "Channel One"

 


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Wednesday, January 29, 1997 #1065
I'm finding very hard to calculate the price of an advertise on the web.DO have any tip or formula that could help me ? Thank you very much !

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 30, 1997 ):
What information or goal are you starting with? As a guide line, search engine keyword banners may cost between $30-$70 per thousand ad impressions.

 


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Tuesday, January 28, 1997 #1066
Where can I find research information from Prizm or the Starch Report?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, January 28, 1997 ):
If you mean free on the web, not likely. If you just want to find the companies, Claritas sells PRIZM (212) 789-3580 and Roper Starch Worldwide is at (212)599-0700.

 


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Monday, January 27, 1997 #1067
My client is requiring me to use adjustment percentages whencalculating grp's in print. I was always taught that reach x frequency= GRP's. Now if I calculate the adjustment to my grp's, the formula no longer works. Is this correct, or do I have to do something else to my reach/frequency? Help!!!

 

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, January 28, 1997 ):
There are various approaches. If the GRP adjustment is just an index reflecting characteristics of the vehicles and their audiences, it may be sufficient to show R/F/GRP/AdjGRP

If the adjustments are meant to change actual value of the GRP, it is usual to recalculate reach from the new, adjusted GRP. Since print r&f is usually calculated from actual schedules, via a "black box" algorithym, rather than from a grp "curve," this may be impractical. If your system allows you to enter factors for each publication before calculating reach, that may solve your problem.

Lastly, even with adjusted GRP to represent some abstraction, the people reached would not be reached at a different average frequency, so one quick and dirty answer, if you must use adjusted grp, is just to divide them by the original frequency, to get reach.

It's similar to the concept of changing a spot coverage area, broadcast r/f to its national equivalent: The GRPs are weighted by the coverage area % and the frequencyremains constant, to calculate the reach.

 


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Monday, January 27, 1997 #1068
What does the Radio Format NAC stand for?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, January 28, 1997 ):
This is "New Adult Contemporary" a sometimes described as a "smooth jazz" format.

In the New York market, WQCD is an example. Their Real Audio, top 10 for the month playlist, at WQCD /The music includes Luther Vandross' Goin' Out of My Head at #1, Whitney Houston's I Believe in You and Me at #4 and a couple of Kenny G songs.

Other NAC stations with web sites include KIFM, San Diego KKSF, SanFranciscoKBZN, Salt Lake City

 


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Friday, January 24, 1997 #1069
Media Guru, have you ever used or heard of "Compass" media planning software? I was curious if you have any opinions about it and who manufactures it. Thanks in advance.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 26, 1997 ):
The Guru was more familiar with Conquest, a similarproduct. Compass software is a VNU / Claritas product based on the PRIZM geodemographic system, while Conquest is a system originated by Donnelly, then a Nielsen company, and linked to their Cluster Plus geodemographic system. The Guru believes Strategic Mapping, Inc was the buyer from Donnelly, and recently Claritas acquired Strategic Mapping.

Equifax' National Decision Sytems is one other supplier of such systems

The Guru is fascinated by the potential of geodemographic planning, which can identify customers' or prospects' concentrations geographically, the demographic make up of retail trading circles and many other fascinating manipulations of target populations. It is also feasible to link customers by location to Simmons MRI, JD Power, and other respondent data bases.

 


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Thursday, January 23, 1997 #1070
is there any place in this program where I can find tv cable rates for a college project?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, January 25, 1997 ):
The Guru says:

Go to AMIC's Rates, Dates and Data TV cpms section

 


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Monday, January 20, 1997 #1071
Statistically, how successful are newsletters in obtaining customers?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 22, 1997 ):
If you refer to paid newsletters getting customers for themselves, the Guru expects that they are subject to the same results as other direct response sales of media, probably 1 - 2%, depending on the quality of the prospect list and sales piece or sample, as well as price.

 


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Friday, January 17, 1997 #1072
Dear Media Guru,Is there a source for finding various regional or local direct mail houses who specialize in either marriage mail or some type of insert program? SRDS has been of no help so far, and we desperately want to break away from ADVO.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 19, 1997 ):
DM Plaza's supplier's list is one of the Guru's resources for finding such firms.

 


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Friday, January 17, 1997 #1073
Need to know if accessible research has been done on response rate of displayed 800-#s in regular TV spots (not 800#-businesses), e.g.automobile spots, phone company spots, etc.If possible, need answer before 2pm today (1/17). Thanks so much.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 19, 1997 ):
TheDirect Marketing Association research area wiil direct you to likely resources.

By the way, though the Guru is obviously all-knowing, he is not always just sitting at the computer waitng for questions. You can't count on one hour turn around, although the Guru usually is pretty quick once he sees your question.

 


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Friday, January 17, 1997 #1074
We're interested if there is any information available in Canada comparing large format newspaper advertising (double or triple page spead) and FSI's.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 19, 1997 ):
The Guru suggestsb you begin with the Newspaper Marketing Bureau of Canada

 


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Thursday, January 16, 1997 #1075
Is there a listing anywhere on the internet of all Advertising Agencies in the US available - even those not listed on the internet? Is there a way of finding out what accounts the agencies have and/or who does business in Canada? Thank you for your assistance.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 16, 1997 ):
Internet Public Access Corporation says they have a directory of AAAA and other agencies "coming soon" Under the "industry directories" link they have contact info for the Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies (The Redbook) generally considered the definitive source of the information you want, including geographic listings and account lists.

 


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Wednesday, January 15, 1997 #1076
Hi, I work for a News Radio station. Is there any place I can look for format research that shows the effectiveness against different product categories? Likewise, are there any success stories on record that I could use to sell my product? Thanks very much for your assistance .

 

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 15, 1997 ):
The Radio Advertising Bureau has a great compilation of radio research facts.

Interep maintains an excellent collection of case studies of radio successes, indexed by format.

Simmons and MRI report on format listening versus product consumption.

 


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Wednesday, January 15, 1997 #1077
Wow, who knew?
there was someone like you
the great media guru!

My question...Where can I get more information on the retention of advertising within a commerical cluster...specifically radio advertising. I've heard the first and last commercial have the highest retention levels, but I can't prove it. Any suggestions?Thanks.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 15, 1997 ):

 


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Tuesday, January 14, 1997 #1078
What do you think about a coupon only monthly free publication?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 15, 1997 ):
These have been around for a while. They are more or less equivalent to the Card Decks and "Val Paks." Some people are devoted to coupons and will go though them each time to find interesting coupons. Some people will dump them as "junk mail" without looking at all.

Thinking of such publications as advertising vehicles calls for substantially discounting circulation figures, as with any free, not-by-request vehicle. Also, as advertising, the Guru believes the main result is to give a discount to existing customers or to those who buy whatever is on "special' at the moment, rather than to actually induce trial.

If ones' primary goal is to distribute coupons to a non-selective audience, one means is as good as the next until ther is a specific redemption history to evaluate.

 


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Saturday, January 11, 1997 #1079
dear guru, how do you see the future of radio?and what are the audience's feeling about this medium?what are the peculiarity of this medium, its main features among the other media?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, January 13, 1997 ):
There are many possible futures for radio, which has been rather stable for years, mostly changing only with the publics taste in music and personalities. Today, links with the WWW, like "net radio," may lead to some changes.

(Outside the US, radio is often a relatively stronger medium, versus TV)

It would be interesting to take this question to the MediaPlan e-mail discussion list, or to the Radio-Media list.

Subscribe to MediaPlan by sending the message "subscribe" to mailto:listserv@AMIC.com"

Subscribe to Radio-Media by sending a request toRadio-Media

 


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Friday, January 10, 1997 #1080
Dear Guru: Where do I look for information about the ethnic market?I am trying to establish average income levels, viewing habits,etc..

 

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, January 13, 1997 ):
Which ethnic market? If you mean African-American, Hispanic and Asian, the three largest commonly considered "ethnic markets" the Census Bureau's site is full of income and other info.

Tv viewing is reported by Nielsen Media Research or in broader strokes by studies like MRI or Simmons which has a specific Hispanic study.

Many other links may be found, on AMIC, at Abbott Wool's Market Segment Resource Locator

 


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Thursday, January 09, 1997 #1081
I am looking for some information regarding the buying cycles of computer professionals, for a media branding plan. Could you point me in the right direction?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Saturday, January 11, 1997 ):
Intelliquest's Technology Monitor reports on computer use and buying. Under "WOHO" they talk about work use versushome use. Their results are often published in USA Today.

Simmons Market Research Bureau also has the Compro Study of computerprofessionals.

For more narrowly focused trade coverage you would probaly get the best information from an industry publication like Information Week

 


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Tuesday, January 07, 1997 #1082
This may sound dumb but what is the difference between a marketing plan and a media plan? Can I use your on-line provided media plan as an outline for my marketing plan?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Wednesday, January 08, 1997 ):
The descriptions of the parts of a media plan here include all of the possible parts of a media plan. In practice only a small portion of those topics would be usedin a typical plan.

Only new business presentation plans are likely to contain this muchinformation. Keep in mind that the Guru has presented a description of the parts of a plan, not an outline of a plan.

For your purposes the key differences are that a media plan takes much of the marketing plan as givens, whereas the marketing plan needs to set up and support the facts and decisions that become the starting points of the media plan.

Marketing plans are broad, covering manufacturing, distribution, profit and marketing communication issues not usually included in media plans.

By fleshing out and rearranging the marketing element, you might come close to having a reasonable marketing plan.

 


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Sunday, January 05, 1997 #1083
How can I get a listing of which advertisers spend the most money to place ads on Saturday morning and other children's programming blocks?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Monday, January 06, 1997 ):
The Guru believes that CMR(Competitive Media Reports)'s Adspender can manipulate its TV data in this way.

If this is not available to you, the ad trade publications such as Ad Age publish annual reviews of such information.

 


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Saturday, January 04, 1997 #1084
I've heard that co-op advertising is on the rise. It seems like a great way to share advertising costs. Do you know of any standard letters or agreements used to present the idea from business to business (like from a store owner to a supplier?) Thanks.

 

The Media Guru Answers(Sunday, January 05, 1997 ):
The typical situation is that the manufacturer establishes a co-op program and advises dealers and distributors, who can then request the form to apply for participation.

This is how the manufacturer establishes a budget reserve for its share of the costs.

There is at least one book in print which lists co-op programs in existence. The Guru can't recall the name, but your local newspaper or radio station probably has a co-op manager who has a copy. These media are great beneficiaries of your use of co-op advertising!

There is also a National Association for Promotional and Advertising Allowances, Inc. which includes on its resouce list Co-op Works,

"a new online service that helps retailers, product vendors and media make the best use of co-op and MDF programs. Co-op Works standardizes the language and simpifies the entire process. Retailers and manufacturers can track incentives and accrued funds instantly-reducing the questions, phone calls, and headaches."

Contact:
Tim Fisher, President
2665 Villa Creek #208
Dallas, TX 75234-7309
Phone: 800-810-2025
Fax: 214-243-6310
tim@dxpressway.com

 


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Thursday, January 02, 1997 #1085
A non-profit visual arts agency is putting all of their $ into developing a direct marketing brochure. Just mailing something out doesn't seem like enough. How do we make this more effective with no more $ in the budget?

 

The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 02, 1997 ):
There are two major elements in the success of any directmailing:

-The quality of the list

-The mailing piece itself.

Make sure you have a wellscreened highly qualified list of best potentialprospects. Without knowing the actual goals you have as a response,the Guru can say no more.

 


Additional GURU questions and answers are available in the Guru Archives

 


 

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